Organic Chemistry Laboratory Techniques
Lisa Nichols, Butte Community College
Copyright Year: 2016
Publisher: Lisa Nichols
Conditions of Use
This is a comprehensive lab manual that covers basic lab techniques in organic chemistry. Theory and procedures on major organic lab techniques were covered in detail. The step-by-step illustrations of experimental procedures made it easy for... read more
This is a comprehensive lab manual that covers basic lab techniques in organic chemistry. Theory and procedures on major organic lab techniques were covered in detail. The step-by-step illustrations of experimental procedures made it easy for readers to follow. The colored pictures and graphs are very well labeled. Technique summaries are very helpful for readers who just needed a refresher. It would be better if more safety information was added to the text, especially in section 6.4 on chemical tests. Another suggestion is adding discussions on spectroscopic methods, such as infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. More coverage of commonly encountered problems and their solutions would be very helpful for new learners.
I didn't notice any content mistakes. Lab techniques were described accurately.
Basic organic chemistry lab techniques are covered in this book. The information in the book will remain relevant for many years to come.
The text was very well-written. Lab techniques are well-presented and easy to follow. Colored pictures were used to clearly demonstrate steps in experimental procedures.
Information was presented consistently. Materials in different chapters were arranged similarly in the book, which made it easy for readers to follow.
Each chapter was clearly divided into different sections. Hyperlinks were provided for easy navigation. It is easy for instructors to assign any topic for students to read as a pre-lab assignment.
Information in the book was organized logically and clearly. Text provided good depth and detail. The format and terminology followed conventions of chemistry lab manuals. The flow in writing is good, which makes reading enjoyable.
The book was easy to navigate with provided hyperlinks as well as colored pictures and graphs.
Grammatical errors were not found in the book.
The text is not culturally insensitive or offensive.
I really appreciate the author’s effort in providing a great open educational resource on lab techniques in organic chemistry!
The book is highly comprehensive for the introductory basic level of organic lab. Picture of each lab apparatus and technique makes this book highly conceptual. The book must have a few questions after each technique which gives students to... read more
The book is highly comprehensive for the introductory basic level of organic lab. Picture of each lab apparatus and technique makes this book highly conceptual. The book must have a few questions after each technique which gives students to challenge to learn well. overall highly informative due to the picture procedure.
I did not find any issue with the content.
Information about lab and techniques looks accurate to me
This is book is highly relevant due to the picture procedure and picture techniques.
Picture procedure gives a wide idea to our students to learn lab techniques. According to me highly recommended for organic labs.
Very clear due to colored picture and readable.
Strongly consistent throughout the entire content.
Book content is divided very well into major divisions (Different labs ) and subdivisions (pic procedure and concept). The table of content has a link that takes you quickly on the particular technique to which you are looking for. Very easy for the undergraduate level to understand the basic fundamentals of organic labs.
The book is well organized. All lab techniques are clear and understandable for the reader
I didn't observe any interface issues. The link given in the table of content is navigated you well through the book.
I did not find any grammatical error
The book is very informative for all readers throughout the world. Book content did not include any type of cultural intention.
This is a very comprehensive organic chemistry lab manual on basic techniques. The author effectively used illustrations to show each technique's step-by-step procedure, including some aspects that are usually not mentioned in others textbooks.... read more
This is a very comprehensive organic chemistry lab manual on basic techniques. The author effectively used illustrations to show each technique's step-by-step procedure, including some aspects that are usually not mentioned in others textbooks. That will be very helpful for students as they are preparing for the labs. However, the book doesn't have a dedicated section for general safety, which is a must in such labs. The safety notes listed within a chapter or procedure should be more emphasized.
The textbook is accurate content-wise. I didn't see any content mistake.
The content of the textbook is up-to-date and relevant to basic organic chemistry lab techniques. In addition, it provides good overviews of each method that will increase students' engagement in the lab technique and help them see its relevance.
The textbook is written in a language comparable to other textbook on the topic of basic organic lab techniques. It is easy to read and follow the steps. I think the plenty of illustration and lab setup pictures make this textbook much better than other. It is beneficial that the author provided examples of the “wrong way to do,”; which is rarely addressed in the textbook on this topic.
The text is consistent in terms of terms and can be easily adopted even if the instructor teaches/performs the chapters/experiments in a different order than that represented in the text
It has an easy-to-navigate structure. Therefore, it can be used with labs in which the learning outcomes are structured differently.
It is well organized.
The interface is user-friendly and all the images/tables/charts are displayed properly. The hyperlinks are very useful to find the topics.
I didn't see any grammatical mistakes.
There is not information relating to cultural relevance in the text which is comparable to other textbook in this field.
This is a very comprehensive book, only lacking in an important aspect which is the microscale techniques and appropriate glassware. That part is absent, there is a description of how to use certain techniques in a microscale way but not with the... read more
This is a very comprehensive book, only lacking in an important aspect which is the microscale techniques and appropriate glassware. That part is absent, there is a description of how to use certain techniques in a microscale way but not with the microscale glassware kits that are common in labs nowadays to minimize the use of reactants and have a more green organic chemistry lab. That said, this book is very good presenting the lab techniques used in Organic chemistry.
Another point I would like to mention is that a clear section on safety is lacking and safety tips appear in the text together with the rest and that is not good. They should be highlighted in boxes at the top of each section.
I think this book is very good in that regard. I did not see any mistakes and the information presented is accurate, both the pictures and text.
The techniques presented in this book are very relevant for Organic Chemistry labs. This is an excellent overview of the techniques.
The only issue I have is that microscale glassware is not present and that is a future trend and is lacking in this book.
The book is very clear and has plenty of illustrations in very detail to go with the text. In particular I like the comparison of the "right way to do" versus "wrong way to do". This is done in all sorts of situations like clamping glassware to set up an experiment, pipetting reactants into a round bottom flask etc. This I find one of the greatest strengths of the book. It would have been extremely useful to me when I taught Organic I and Organic II labs. It would have saved me much time to direct the students to the photos in the book.
This book is very consistent in terms of terminology.
This book works very well if one wants to teach only a particular technique, and the order of topics can be interchanged since each chapter has a very clear and thorough introduction. It can be used in sequence or it can be used according to the technique one wishes to teach/learn. Only the initial chapter should be read first to acquaint oneself with the different glassware and an overview of the techniques.
As I mentioned before this book is lacking a description of microscale glassware and techniques.
The book is very well organized.
The books interface works very well. Hyperlinks work, photos are depicted correctly when clicked upon.
This book is well written with clarity in the writing. I saw no grammatical errors.
This book is about Organic chemistry techniques. It is not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way.
I think this is a very valuable resource. Because I taught Organic Chemistry labs using only microscale techniques this book would not be suitable for my courses as the only resource, but I would certainly recommend it to my students. The author has clearly put a lot of effort in the book and the result is a very good book. I wish I had known about this book when I was teaching Organic Labs, if I teach Organic Labs in the future I will certainly recommend parts of this book to my students.
This resource is one of the most complete manuals for organic techniques I have ever seen for the undergraduate level. It is comprehensive not only in the coverage of how to employ all the common OChem techniques, but it also illustrates common... read more
This resource is one of the most complete manuals for organic techniques I have ever seen for the undergraduate level. It is comprehensive not only in the coverage of how to employ all the common OChem techniques, but it also illustrates common pitfalls with an appropriate amount of detail. Hyperlinks are used strategically throughout the text to define potentially unfamiliar terms. I reviewed the book using Adobe, and was able to easily scan through the table of contents using bookmarks. I appreciated the one-page "brief" table of contents which displays pictures, chapter numbers and titles, page numbers, and hyperlinks to major topics. The one-page view quickly gives the reader a sense of what is in each chapter and an easy way to get there. The text also contains the traditional table of contents in detail with extensive hyperlinks for easy access.
I did not see any errors in content. I did not see any evidence of bias.
The content contains a delightful mix of long-standing, traditional techniques with newer ones. For example, finding the melting point with a Thiele tube is illustrated in addition to the use of an electrical melting point device. Similarly, the various methods for taking a boiling point are described. There is a section on qualitative tests of organic functional groups which I have not seen in more recently printed lab technique books. This text book presents those reliable, traditional methods in thoughtfully annotated pictures which gives the text the feel that this is something new. I find the treatment of a variety of methods make this textbook universally helpful.
The language used is concise and clear. An appropriate level of detail is included. Hyperlinks are available if additional information is needed about a referenced piece of equipment.
The text uses a unique color for title bars, headings and descriptions of figures in each of the seven chapters. At the beginning of each chapter, a photograph or series of photographs are used to showcase some process covered within the text. For example, a series of 12 photos at the beginning of Chapter 3 shows the time-lapse formation of benzil crystals from a cooling ethanol solution. The photos are clear and orderly arranged. Not only do the photos make a nice cover page, but they teach the reader as well. Throughout each chapter, the numbering scheme is consistent, as are indentations, and margins. The use of color-coordinated circled letters helps the reader distinguish the differences between similar parts of a larger scheme.
The text is modular and is easily divisible into smaller reading sections. Page numbers, bookmarks, hyperlinked titles are provided to give the reader a number of ways to navigate the text. The text is self referenced, although I found times when I lost my place after clicking on a hyperlink to check a definition. I didn't see a way to return to my spot in the text. I am reviewing this text in Adobe, so I do not know if this issue is present in other modes of reading the text. Perhaps there is a way to "go back" to a previous point in the text. If so, then I would rate this category higher.
The seven chapters are presented in a manner which make sense. Chapter 1 introduces general techniques and foundational methods and shows examples of typical glassware and equipment. Safety is discussed in this chapter and throughout. Chapter 2 through 5 include topics of chromatography, crystallization, extraction, and distillation. Since this is a book of techniques, the order of these chapters is unimportant. The book concludes with Chapter 6 on miscellaneous techniques, and Chapter 7 with one-page summaries of all the important techniques. Generally, the author has organized sections of each chapter with an overview of the technique, followed by uses and/or theory, then step-by-step procedures with a summary of the procedure at the end of the section. This level of redundancy is extraordinarily useful for those learners who may be performing a procedure in Organic lab for the first time. The summaries are useful for a quick reference for the more experienced learners.
The interface I am using works well (Adobe Acrobat Pro). I only wish there was a back button, so that after clicking on a hyperlink, I could easily find my place in the previous text.
I have not seen any grammatical errors.
The textbook is not culturally insensitive nor offensive. It is inclusive in that persons shown in the pictures appear to be from a variety of races, ethnicities, age groups and gender.
Kudos to the author for such a thorough treatment of the procedures. The level of detail, clarity of pictures and consistent color schemes makes this text visually appealing and extraordinarily useful. I love that the author attempts to connect some of the technique to the students everyday experience with the examples found in the overviews. When I first began teaching, I would require an expensive textbook which I would always have to supplement because the procedures they used didn't quite match up with the equipment I had available. I found a text book which I've used for many years, but it is out of print and expensive. Lisa Nichols' 2nd Edition of "Organic Chemistry Laboratory Techniques" is exactly what I've been looking for. Finally! Thank you for such an excellent product and for keeping students' needs in the forefront.
The book gives an excellent comprehensive view of the various techniques used in organic chemistry. It is well illustrated with a lot of pictures and explanations. The directions are very easy to follow and the steps are very detailed. read more
The book gives an excellent comprehensive view of the various techniques used in organic chemistry. It is well illustrated with a lot of pictures and explanations. The directions are very easy to follow and the steps are very detailed.
Overall, the book gives an excellent overview of all techniques. However, all of the techniques should be demonstrated in a hood, not a lab bench. A hood is much safer than a lab bench in the middle of the laboratory.
Section 1.1D talks about greasing joints, which contaminates products. Teflon tape is better.
For cleaning glassware, use a waste jar, not a waste beaker. The text tells students to leave wet glassware on paper towels. In our case, the glassware then accumulates by the sinks. It is better to tell students to put the glassware away.
Distillations in Figure 1.3a, Figure 5.2, Figure 5.37, and others show a graduated cylinder as a receiver. This is not a proper receiver.
Table 1.6 – the Bunsen burner should be standing underneath the flask, not being held.
This book will not become obsolete. These techniques have been around for a long time, and will continue to be used in organic chemistry. The drawings and explanations are excellent and are easy to follow.
The directions are written in an easy-to-follow format, where any student can easily follow the steps and be successful in the lab. The drawings and pictures illustrate the text in a very informative manner.
The book is consistent throughout in the presentation of material. The steps are well-written and easy to follow.
The chapters are divided into sections, which are easy to read. A professor could easily assign any chapter or any section for a student to read before the lab. I would not reorganize the text, rather just reference a section for a student to review prior to using that particular technique in lab.
The topics are in a logical manner in the way that they would be taught in a typical organic chemistry laboratory. The simple techniques are at the beginning of the chapter, then the more complicated techniques are later.
The drawings and pictures are a consistent size throughout the textbook. Navigation through the chapters are very easy, since it is well organized by technique. I found it easy to find any technique that I was interested in. All drawings and pictures have text accompanying them to explain the technique stepwise.
I did not find any grammatical errors.
A textbook on chemistry techniques is mostly a textbook of pictures of equipment. Perhaps in a future edition, include a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds. Frankly, I was not looking at the people in the pictures, but the drawings and steps.
Excellent textbook for organic lab techniques. There are a few minor corrections that need to be done, but otherwise it is outstanding, and well-written.
This is a comprehensive chemistry laboratory manual, and I think the extensive use of pictures makes it more engaging as a resource for educators. The “Safety note” sections should be boxed and emphasized. The theory sections are comprehensive,... read more
This is a comprehensive chemistry laboratory manual, and I think the extensive use of pictures makes it more engaging as a resource for educators. The “Safety note” sections should be boxed and emphasized. The theory sections are comprehensive, especially the section on fractional distillation. This organic chemistry laboratory techniques manual is a beneficial resource for experimental work and the reinforcement of good practices.
The text and images provide an accurate representation of the experimental procedures. Techniques may vary at different institutions, and it may be possible to highlight variations and evaluate these methods.
This manual helps to establish a critical foundation in laboratory knowledge and practice. The content is appropriate and addresses the current techniques with the potential for additional supporting activities.
The text is clear to understand and provides support with informative pictures and diagrams. Summaries and concepts could be more concise with additional formatting to break up the text and create more digestible sections to aid student focus.
The order and structure of the text are consistent throughout the chapters of the manual.
There is a modular structure that helps the user navigate the concepts and techniques. To further enhance the modular structure, there could be more infographics and highlighted sections. Using infographics and color-coded boxed articles across the entire manual would help to identify similar themes such as safety and methods quickly. It would make these sections faster to identify and refer to during an experimental procedure.
The sections and related topics follow a clear and logical structure with a natural flow from experimental procedures to the summary.
The hyperlinks provide essential navigation through the text to better understand the principles of the experimental procedures.
No grammatical errors were identified.
No information relating to cultural relevance was presented in this text, although the inclusion of relatable ideas helps convey the experiences of the author to that of the reader. Cultural differences in techniques could be a useful future expansion to the text.
Overall, this is an essential laboratory manual for organic chemistry students.
This text is very complete and comprehensive for what it is covering. Virtually all organic chemistry wet-lab methods undergraduate students will encounter are presented. The extensive use of photos of actual glassware and techniques... read more
This text is very complete and comprehensive for what it is covering. Virtually all organic chemistry wet-lab methods undergraduate students will encounter are presented. The extensive use of photos of actual glassware and techniques demonstrated are very helpful and clear. Many of the methods described/demonstrated will also serve students well in other laboratory courses. For example, the inert atmosphere handling of reagents and reaction set-ups would find excellent use in inorganic lab courses. This text could/would be a very helpful reference text to be used throughout a student’s undergraduate work and even their graduate work. The frequent examples of “correct” vs. “incorrect” techniques are very clear and reflect many of the common mistakes and errors students make when first learning a new technique. Even something as simple as reminding students to keep Pasteur pipettes vertical to minimize dripping is addressed. And real-world advice is given throughout the text that is welcome and relevant. Who hasn’t broken a pipette during column chromatography? If the trouble-shooting suggestions fail, then the text offers the following correct advice: “If the sample has already been applied, there isn’t anything to do but continue on and hope for the best.” The summaries section at the end is also a great quick-access resource for students returning to a technique and looking for a quick reminder.
The methods/techniques are correctly and adequately presented.
All of the methods are relevant and should continue to be. Even the Chemical Tests section (6.4) is presented in such a way to be used along side and complement modern spectroscopy methods.
The text is very clear and readable. The extensive use of accurate and relevant photographs is excellent.
All material is presented in a consistent format.
Yes, sections of the text can be quickly accessed and assigned for a variety of learning/teaching situations.
Yes, the text is very clear and logical. Topics are introduced with a clear overview and then each is expanded appropriately.
No interface issues were detected/discovered.
No grammatical errors were detected/discovered.
No culturally insensitive or inappropriate materials were detected/discovered.
Comprehensiveness • I think there should be introductory materials/concepts in every organic chemistry lab textbook. Concepts like, safety in the lab, laboratory notebook and pre lab information. I did not find items like these in the... read more
• I think there should be introductory materials/concepts in every organic chemistry lab textbook. Concepts like, safety in the lab, laboratory notebook and pre lab information. I did not find items like these in the book.
• Spectrometric methods, like Infrared spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, Mass spectroscopy are missing from this text book.
• There is no index, nor glossary in the book. The last chapter has different organic chemistry lab technique summary, maybe this is intended to be an index.
This review is not intended to discredit this text book. It is intended to help transform the book into a more robust reference material for organic chemistry students.
The content covered are accurate and adequately covered. I did not find any error.
The text focused on organic chemistry lab techniques. Techniques covered are up-to-date, there is no fear the book will become obsolete within a short period of time. Updates in organic chemistry lab technique text book, like green chemistry should be easy to add to the textbook.
The text is expressed clearly, easy to understand with lots of pictures of students performing different lab techniques. This makes the technical terms/concepts more comprehensible.
The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework. There are overviews and summaries given for each concept covered, this is consistently done throughout the text, I think this helps develop student’s interest to learn more.
The text is easily and readily divisible into smaller reading sections that can be assigned at different points within the course (i.e., enormous blocks of text without subheadings should be avoided). The text should not be overly self-referential and should be easily reorganized and realigned with various subunits of a course without presenting much disruption to the reader. I agree.
The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion. Related basic methods, like separation, purification, and analysis are presented adequately in appropriate chapters.
There are quick links on the text. These links provide for easy access to concepts. Lots of pictures, some complex ideas can be expressed with just a single picture, thereby making the book easy to understand.
I did not find any grammatical errors.
I did not find any culturally insensitive material(s) in the text.
Extremely comprehensive, with a large number of photographs that provide a detailed graphical complement to the text. Virtually every major technique and many minor ones are covered, to the degree that this would serve as not only a comprehensive... read more
Extremely comprehensive, with a large number of photographs that provide a detailed graphical complement to the text. Virtually every major technique and many minor ones are covered, to the degree that this would serve as not only a comprehensive undergraduate textbook but an introductory graduate one.
I did not notice any inaccuracies in the text. The equipment shown in photographs will likely vary from institution to institution, but this can be easily adjusted during pre-lab discussions.
Basic organic chemistry techniques have not changed significantly in quite some time, but this book's signature achievement is in the inclusion of color photographs as opposed to the black-and-white images often found in older texts. Many of the advances being made in modern techniques come in the form of automation of existing techniques via robotics. In the event that these instruments become inexpensive enough to incorporate into an undergraduate laboratory, updating the text should be easy since it would typically involve subtraction rather than addition.
I found the book easy to read and follow, with minimal jargon.
I did not find any inconsistencies with regard to tone or content.
Techniques are neatly divided into several major categories and then subdivided further into specific procedures. The table of contents has clickable links, which makes it very easy to get to a specific technique quickly. Subdividing this book into individual sections to assign for a laboratory course would be very simple.
Each chapter provides a general overview of the technique family and some of the underlying theory before delving deeper into the specifics of each technique. The technique summaries provided at the end of the book are very useful refreshers, and I will likely be referring students to it often.
The hyperlinks within the Table of Contents makes navigating the book very easy. I did not find any images to be distorted or unreadable.
I found no grammatical or spelling errors during my read.
This book focuses exclusively on scientific technique. The text is suitable for anyone in a chemistry course, regardless of race, ethnicity, or background.
This is one of the most useful lab technique books I have ever come across, and something that I wish I'd had as both an undergraduate and a beginning graduate student. I will be assigning this book in all of my future lab courses, and if the author decides to include a section on spectroscopy in the future with the same level of detail I may begin incorporating it into the lecture portion too.
Very comprehensive for introductory organic chemistry lab course read more
Very comprehensive for introductory organic chemistry lab course
I did not read everything, but what I looked at was accurate.
The focus on commonly used equipment and glassware in the organic chemistry teaching lab makes this book very relevant.
Very consistent framework.
Text adjacent to applicable photos might be easier for some to read rather than having photos clustered.
The organization was clear and easy to follow.
The book was straight forward to navigate.
I did not encounter grammatical errors.
The book did not seem culturally insensitive.
The detailed photos make this book unique and very useful for students. The only suggestion I have is to add separate trouble shooting guides/tables for each technique.
The text covers most major laboratory techniques utilized in an organic chemistry laboratory. The book provides a detailed table of contents with links enabling easy movement within the text. There are a few topics that would enhance the book. ... read more
The text covers most major laboratory techniques utilized in an organic chemistry laboratory. The book provides a detailed table of contents with links enabling easy movement within the text. There are a few topics that would enhance the book. Within the individual sections, the author describes appropriate safety related to the presented techniques. An overall safety section at the beginning of the textbook would be useful to help set the stage and review the important laboratory safety prior to starting any experiments. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are provided for some of the techniques but there is no details about how to obtain an NMR or even an IR spectrum, which are key characterization techniques in organic chemistry.
To the best of my knowledge the book is highly accurate. The material presented in the text is well written, unbiased, and does not contain any obvious errors or inaccuracies. The images and equipment used were institution-specific but the author tries to make note, when appropriate, about how the piece of equipment available may differ and encourages the students to consult with their instructors.
The text is written in a manner that is relevant for most introductory organic chemistry courses. The techniques presented are universal methods for handling, purifying, heating, and analyzing organic chemicals. The textbook should not become obsolete in the next decade or so. As the text is already in a second edition, the author is willing and able to update as necessary.
The text is written in a manner that would be clear for a student enrolled in an organic chemistry course.
The author writes in a consistent manner in terms of terminology and language throughout the entire text.
The textbook is organized into appropriate sections devoted to the different organic chemistry laboratory techniques presented. Sections of the text can be easily assigned in advance of a laboratory course.
The overall organization of the text was presented in a logical and clear fashion. In a few sections, re-organization of the information may provide a greater clarity for the students. For example, on page 86, the author presents the visualization of TLC on the plate under UV light. A description of visualization of the plate under UV light does not appear until page 107. Either the material could be reorganized or at least a link provided to the later part of the section that explains the theory behind the visualization.
The text is a well organized pdf file. The file contains links that can be clicked to help navigate between techniques. One concern about an online laboratory manual file is use in a laboratory setting. Organic chemicals could be corrosive to an electronic device which leads to challenges with bringing cell phones, tablets, or computers into the lab. One useful part of the textbook is the summary pages. One might print these pages to bring to lab hence eliminating the potential risk of damage to the electronic device.
To the best of my knowledge, the book is free of grammatical errors.
Organic chemistry is a topic that does not involve discussion of race, ethnicity, or cultural backgrounds. The author does include images of students working in an organic chemistry laboratory and the students portrayed are visually diverse in terms of gender, possible age, and backgrounds.
This book achieves a level of comprehensiveness that I have not seen in an Organic Chemistry lab techniques book before. Every relevant technique is covered in exhaustive detail with plenty of clear color photographs to accompany the text. As a... read more
This book achieves a level of comprehensiveness that I have not seen in an Organic Chemistry lab techniques book before. Every relevant technique is covered in exhaustive detail with plenty of clear color photographs to accompany the text. As a lab techniques reference it is absolutely singular; even minor and esoteric techniques are covered in such detail that an undergraduate student would be able to (with appropriate practice, of course) master that technique. My sole complaint is that it does not contain practice experiments, but this is a minor complaint. Indeed, if this book contained relevant experiments within the field it would become a standalone organic chemistry lab textbook.
There are no errors that I could see, and the information presented is accurate to my eyes.
This is where this book truly stands out; Leonard, Lygo, and Proctor’s “Advanced Practical Organic Chemistry” has long been my go-to reference text, but it suffers from the common pitfall of a traditional text: the pictures are black-and-white. This book, because it is in digital format, isn’t limited to cheap-to-print black and white, but instead has full color pictures, and a lot of them. As a living digital document, then, there is no expiration date (provided the author chooses to update or allows for derivatives to be produced.) As a long-time industrial chemist, I have seen my own practice change from stringent adherence to literature methods to more of a freestyle approach that accomplishes what is necessary in the minimum amount of time. This book presents both paradigms; the time-tested approach as well as the slightly cruder but much more time efficient method. As a reference, then, it is unquestionably relevant to the practice of experimental organic chemistry.
At the risk of sounding repetitive, the pictures make the difference in terms of clarity. I found the writing style to be clear and (dare I say) entertaining, but it is the absolute wealth of pictures that enhance the clarity well above any reference that I’ve seen to date.
I found the book to be consistent in its use of language and structure, which makes it truly useful as a reference text.
Experimental organic chemistry demands a reference that is modular, as the first semester is typically a modular exploration of technique. This book does a fantastic job of separating the subject into its components and then exploring those components in detail. It would be fantastically easy to assign reading before an experiment.
I found the book to be sensibly organized and easy to follow. The table of contents is appropriately detailed. The order that the information is presented in is sensible as well.
There are no interface related issues that I am aware of.
There are no grammar related issues that I am aware of.
The book is broadly culturally relevant to my eyes; anyone who is or is becoming appropriately skilled in the art should be able to use this book without offence.
I found this book to be utterly fantastic and will be adopting it for use in the coming fall semester.
The organic lab manual provides detailed and comprehensive material of general organic laboratory techniques and instrumentation. It contains information about most instruments, and provides detailed explanation of their use. Having pictures... read more
The organic lab manual provides detailed and comprehensive material of general organic laboratory techniques and instrumentation. It contains information about most instruments, and provides detailed explanation of their use. Having pictures alongside the text is very helpful, and it could have been supplemented with links to videos if available. Safety is very important in the lab, and when working with students in organic labs, often they have very little information about safe techniques or disposal. Some lab manuals provide that info, which is also helpful for the instructor. I liked that this manual also provided details on safety. Also, each lab or topic ends with a short summary, which is very useful for students when they just need a quick refresher, especially for returning students. The lab manual also compares different techniques, and highlights their use in specific cases, which is great if the students are involved in independent work or research.
The lab manual accurately describes and explains the major laboratory techniques and instrumentation. There may be some differences on how certain procedures should be performed, but it is mostly a question of style and/or preference. Minor differences in techniques are expected even in different institutions and/or labs.
The organic lab techniques are not going to change drastically in the next 20-30 years. It is possible that the instruments will get a news and easy to use interface, but having an understanding of the scientific principles behind the techniques/instruments is essential for students’ learning. Also, if green solvents are introduced into the experiments, some techniques might change, but not to the extent that the entire textbook needs to be revised.
The writing style was very pleasant and easy to read. Having pictures certainly made it very enjoyable. The terminology was properly used as well.
The text was consistent, as you would expect from a single author work. The sections were arranged similarly throughout the manual making it easier to navigate and locate information.
The manual is well-organized. It is also easier to use when other textbooks, so it would be very useful for returning as well as new students- from introductory to advanced levels.
The organization follow from basic to advanced techniques. Some instructors might not follow the same order of experiments but that applies to basically any textbook.
This manual, like most OER textbooks I have looked at, was converted from a word document to pdf, and it would have been helpful to link the experiments in the Table of Contents to the page of the experiment. Otherwise, I had to scroll through many pages to go where I want. Jumping to the page did not always land where needed.
There might have been some grammatical mistakes, but I did not notice while reading it.
Not applicable since this is a technical document.
Excellent resource for introductory as well as advanced chemistry students.
This book does an excellent job of covering all of the basic techniques used in an organic chemistry lab. Each section is written so that it can stand alone which I think makes it a great resource to add to an existing course. read more
This book does an excellent job of covering all of the basic techniques used in an organic chemistry lab. Each section is written so that it can stand alone which I think makes it a great resource to add to an existing course.
I found this book to be an accurate guide on lab techniques. Because there is alot of variation in the field, there is not always one right way to do something, and this book covers multiple options that are commonly used in the field. It also makes a point to add in cases where students should seek clarification from the professor, which makes it very versatile.
This textbook includes both classic lab techniques and more modern variations. I don't think it will be an issue to update it over time. It does not always include options for an older lab space, but I only consider that a minor drawback.
This textbook is very well-written. It presents the material in a clear, easy to understand way. It reaches the necessary vocabulary for each technique. The pictures and summary charts after each technique are very valuable tools as well.
The book is consistent in content and layout. The way information is presented is the same throughout.
Each chapter stands alone, so it could easily be assigned in pieces without losing its message. The chapters are further divided into sections, so it is possible to assign only the specific sections relevant to your class.
The flow is very logical. It starts with material relevant to entering a lab and then moves on to progressively more difficult or involved techniques. Sometimes the fact that the chapters are so modular interrupts the flow a small amount, but I think it is worth it for the versatility it provides.
I had no issues navigating the book.
I found the textbook to be well-written and edited.
This is a standard laboratory textbook. It doesn't involve any potentially insensitive or offensive examples. It is written in a neutral way.
Overall, I found this book to be a very good resource for basic laboratory Techniques. It provides good explanations for those new to a technique as well as pictures and summary tables for those looking to use it as a quick resource to remind them how to do something in the lab.
This book provides a thorough coverage of standard techniques used in the organic laboratory. The table of contents on page 2 is very useful as it provides links to the different topics that one can click on to instantly go to the section of... read more
This book provides a thorough coverage of standard techniques used in the organic laboratory. The table of contents on page 2 is very useful as it provides links to the different topics that one can click on to instantly go to the section of interest. A summary of techniques is also provided on page 336. It appears that there is supposed to be an index on page 365, but the pdf ends at page 364; clicking on the link "Complete Index" on page 336 does not work. However, this does not reflect negatively on the content, which is sufficiently comprehensive.
Only a couple of minor errors found: on page 35, Table 1.2, the boiling point of diethyl ether should be 35 oC (instead of 34 oC), and the autoignition temperature of methanol should be 385 oC (instead of 464 oC). These values were found on the sigma aldrich website (sigmaaldrich.com) and accompanying SDS forms. The boiling point of diethyl ether is listed correctly on page 145. Otherwise content appears accurate.
No issues here. The content should be relevant for many years to come.
Well-written, clear and straightforward to understand. The abundance of color pictures provides excellent visual illustration of the techniques described in the text.
No problems or concerns here.
Sections are easy to navigate to through the table of contents; assigning reading to a student should be straightforward.
As mentioned above, the book appeared to be missing page 365, which is supposed to contain a complete index. Otherwise, there were no navigation issues encountered. Images are clear, not distorted, and easy to read.
On page 22, first paragraph, second sentence, "...which indicates that no volume has been delivered with the pipette is still full." should read "which indicates that no volume has been delivered when the pipette is still full." Also on page 29, Figure 1.31, in the figure caption, item d) "Withdrawing inert gas in order to flushing the syringe." the word flushing should be replaced with "flush." Otherwise grammar is fine.
Not applicable in this case, as this is a technical writing document.
A wonderful, illustrative and well-written lab manual. I appreciate the vast abundance of color photographs and detailed descriptions of lab techniques. This is a much needed resource that should be required reading for all undergraduate organic chemistry lab students.
The book includes detailed descriptions of all relevant techniques used in intro organic chemistry lab as well as some more advanced techniques. Discussion of different types of distillations and extractions were thorough. Topics that are absent... read more
The book includes detailed descriptions of all relevant techniques used in intro organic chemistry lab as well as some more advanced techniques. Discussion of different types of distillations and extractions were thorough. Topics that are absent from the book but often covered in other textbooks are general lab safety (though specific safety concerns are addressed within each topic), notebook preparation, and spectroscopy.
I did not find any inaccuracies in the book.
Basic techniques in intro organic chemistry labs haven't changed in the last 20+ years. The information in the book will remain relevant for years to come. Instrument interfaces change, but since book doesn't cover spectroscopy, it is not an issue.
I found the book to be clear and easy to read. The abundance of pictures and drawings accompanying the text will make it easy to follow for students. The author did a great job staging the photographs. Organic compounds are often colorless, but colored compounds were used in many photographs to help students visualize what is happening.
NMR spectra are used to illustrate some points about purity in the crystallization and extraction chapters. I will be assigning these chapters long before covering NMR, so references to it may be more confusing than enlightening for students.
I found no inconsistencies with terminology or tone in the textbook.
Sections of the book can be assigned in any order according to the needs of the course. Each technique is self-contained.
I like that each chapter is broken down into sections and subsections. The book covers several techniques that I do not use in my course, so this makes it easy to specify which pieces of the chapter students are responsible for.
Each chapter provides an overview, covers the theory behind the technique, then discusses the practical aspects of carrying out the technique and its variations. I cover techniques in a different order than the book, but the book is designed to be used in any order.
The last chapter, Technique Summaries, is an excellent resource for students and something I haven't encountered before in lab textbooks. The picture step-by-step technique summaries will be great for students who have performed techniques previously but need a reminder.
The hyperlinks in the TOC are wonderful for navigating the book. Each chapter has its own detailed TOC - I would have liked those to be compiled at the beginning of the book. WIthin the chapter, the subsections have numbers (ex. Ch III B.1), but those section numbers do not appear in the TOC. I think it would be helpful to have the subsection numbers in the TOC as well. I did not encounter any distortion of images.
I did not notice any grammatical errors.
Cultural or historical context is not given, but that is typical in organic lab textbooks. Pictures are largely of equipment, so there is no bias showing people from one background verses others.
I really like this book. The number and use of pictures makes it superior to all traditional textbooks I have seen. I will assign this book the next time I teach organic lab. If the author expands on the book, I would love to see chapters on safety and spectroscopic techniques.
This laboratory technique manual is very detailed and extremely well-written. All the discussed techniques are very commonly used in undergraduate research and teaching labs. The procedures and concepts are explained carefully in detail. The many... read more
This laboratory technique manual is very detailed and extremely well-written. All the discussed techniques are very commonly used in undergraduate research and teaching labs. The procedures and concepts are explained carefully in detail. The many accompanying pictures and sketches are incredibly useful visual aids.
The text of each subchapter was well thought-out and warned of common mistakes for students to avoid, including pictures of correct and incorrect set-ups.
I found the book very comprehensive as the concepts were described in careful detail.
The content of this laboratory technique manual was very accurate as far as I can tell. I did not detect any misinformation or falsehoods. Concepts and techniques were explained thoroughly and unbiasedly. Credible sources were cited where appropriate. I did not come across any typos in this book.
At the undergraduate level organic laboratory techniques and glassware have not changed dramatically over the past couple of decades and I do not foresee much of a change in the next decade and beyond. This manual thoroughly describes the most important techniques and equipment. These will be useful in many years to come. It takes into consideration the restrictions of equipment that may be available at different institutions and, when possible, gives different options to use when one procedure may not be possible due to lack of the required equipment or materials.
The text was extremely well-written, straightforward and easy to read and understand. The language was such that undergraduates, who may not know all the proper terms and lab jargon, would be able to easily follow.
Procedures were written in a step-by-step manner with careful choice of words that didn't leave much room for ambiguity.
These were accompanied by pictures of equipment and set-up etc that will immensely facilitate the students' ability to master these techniques. In fact, now that I am aware of this amazing book I will send an e-copy to all my research students and organic lab TAs because this will help them better understand these techniques they are performing on a daily basis. This will also be a formidable resource for students to learn about new techniques that they are about tot perform for the first time.
The book is consistent and structured. Chapters and subchapters are clearly defined. Terminology is not taken for granted but introduced when it first mentioned. There are hyperlinks within the text that link to other locations within the book where a certain concept or piece of equipment may be explained more thoroughly. Citations are used throughput the book where appropriate.
The text is a nice read - probably as much fun as it can be to read a lab manual.
Sometimes, scientific texts can be very tedious to read. This book however is well-written and well-organized. Additionally, it offers plenty of visualizations (pictures, schematics), that it makes reading and understanding quite easy.
There are no large blocks of text without sub-headers. All chapters are divided into appropriate sub-chapters and sub-sections that deal with a certain module. Sometimes the book used hyperlinked words to refer to other points in the text where a certain concept may be explained more thoroughly. I didn't find it overly self-referential however. Throughout the book there are citations to well-respected outside sources such as journal articles and other books (just below the text on a page where applicable).
I found the book was organized in a logical fashion. Simple concepts such as laboratory terminology for pieces of equipment and simple techniques are handled at the beginning. Then the manual moves to more advanced topics that may require understanding of the previously covered topics. Any time a new term is introduced it is defined and explained. Many visual aids such as pictures, figures, schematics and tables accompany the text. These items are appropriately enumerated and the text often refers back to these items so that its easy to visualize and follow what the text is describing.
I loved the books interface. The general text is written in a black font with appropriate spacing between lines. Figures and tables etc. are labeled with green font. Whenever something needs to be highlighted within the main text a black bolded or sometimes a red bolded font is used underlining its significance to the reader (red means more significant). Pictures, schematics, graphs, tables etc. are in color and make for a very pleasant reading experience.
I did not come across any grammatical errors in this text.
This is a scientific text and does not make mention to race, ethnicities or culture. The text was professionally written and I found no part of this text to be offensive or insensitive.
I loved this laboratory techniques manual ! The author did a great job accumulating all this information and organizing it in such a way that it is easily read and understood with plenty of visualizing aids.
Ii highly recommended this book for undergraduates as well as beginning graduate students. In some cases students may be using a certain technique on a daily basis already but sadly, they may not be fully aware of the science behind it. I think this book helps close this knowledge gap. Information on certain laboratory techniques is usually available on the internet. However I had not yet come across such a comprehensive text. 5/5 stars !
In fact, now that I am aware of this amazing book I will send an e-copy to all my research students and organic lab TAs because this will help them better understand these techniques they are performing on a daily basis. This will also be a formidable resource for students to learn about new techniques that they are about to perform for the first time (e.g. column chromatography.)
The book covers all the areas relevant for the typical undergraduate science student. It is well indexed and the links to move around the text are excellent. read more
The book covers all the areas relevant for the typical undergraduate science student. It is well indexed and the links to move around the text are excellent.
With just a few exceptions the information provided is error-free.
The textbook is most appropriate as a supplement to the typical undergraduate lab manual. In the lab a reaction might be run that includes several techniques to isolate and purify a compound. This text is great for providing the nuts-and -bolts of how to perform these techniques. This book does not however go into any discussion on identifying what the compound might be and no instrumental techniques such as IR, NMR, UV-Vis, etc. are included.
Excellent photos, diagrams and charts are used throughout the book. The language is appropriate for a first semester organic student.
This is a well thought out textbook. It's aim is very specific, organic techniques for the purification of compounds. The pdf version of this book is wonderful and easy to navigate.
By the nature of organic reaction chemistry different tools are necessary for the task and complexity of the mixture. Sometimes a crystalline material is the product and the tools of recrystallization are required, sometimes a liquid is the result and distillation methods are the tool needed to generate the compound in high yield. The way the author structured the work makes finding what you need seamless.
The book does start with the more basic techniques such as TLC and progresses on to some of the more elaborate methods such as fractional vacuum distillation at the end. I like this approach from the methods requiring basic glassware and slowly introducing methods requiring elaborate setups in glassware, heating and vacuum.
This work (the pdf version) has everything crystal clear. The diagrams are not distorted, the charts do not flow over diagrams or photos and the photos are razor sharp.
This is a work of very high quality. No serious errors were noticed in the writing of this book.
Chemistry, by it's nature transcends all ages, genders, religions, and culture. The photos are nearly all close-ups of hands which are gloved and arms that are covered with a lab coat.
I love this book as an adjunct to the lab manual. The author has done a superb job in producing a work that is accurate, clear, well written and structurally easy to navigate.
All the relevant techniques required to complete the first two semesters of organic chemistry lab are covered in detail, read more
All the relevant techniques required to complete the first two semesters of organic chemistry lab are covered in detail,
A great deal of attention has been devoted to an accurate presentation of each technique and its variants.
The techniques presented have been around for years and will likely persist for years to come. The photography style, with tight close-ups and gloved hands makes the images as timeless as possible.
The book is well written, and the prose is very clear. The use of plenty of photographs and illustrations makes it unequivocal.
The prose and delivery is consistent, and it feels as if all subjects are being covered in depth.
The subject matter is modular by nature, since each technique can be presented individually and without much overlap with other sections. Individual sections could easily be assigned as readings or pre-lab work for a course. There is no excessive self-reference.
The book is well structured and flows nicely. I would have placed the crystallization section later in the text, but that is a very personal choice.
The interface on Dropbox is a bit inflexible, and it is not easy to navigate between sections of the book.
I didn't find any grammatical errors.
The subject matter is quite neutral, and the aesthetic choices (photographs and illustration) make it a non-issue. Since most of the photographs are tight close-ups of gloved hands, there is no discernible racial or ethnic background associated with the images.
The is a well written and richly illustrated resource that can be used by novice students in the organic chemistry labs, and it may also be useful to the students in upper-level labs that might need to review a particular technique. The technique summaries at the end of the book are very well done.
This laboratory manual is extremely comprehensive, introducing and explaining all of the major techniques that a student might encounter in an introductory organic chemistry lab. Every procedure is explained in details and is complemented by a... read more
This laboratory manual is extremely comprehensive, introducing and explaining all of the major techniques that a student might encounter in an introductory organic chemistry lab. Every procedure is explained in details and is complemented by a series of photos and pictures to show the students how everything should look. Even more important are the comparisons of related techniques, explaining to students why one method should be chosen over another. While there was no real discussion of IR or NMR, those can be highly instrument specific in terms of set up and interface and may need to be treated at a more local level. Many institutions are moving more in the direction of green chemistry in the organic lab, so the inclusion of greener solvents as examples and in discussions might be helpful in future iterations. All in all, this textbook provides an excellent overview of the techniques and procedures that a student will encounter in an organic lab.
This textbook is highly accurate. All of the information provided was correct and unbiased. There may be a few small procedural differences based on institutional resources, but they can be easily handled in class discussions.
The general techniques in organic labs have changed very little over the past several decades. However, new safety concerns and an increasing focus on more cost effective and green techniques may change some of the procedures. Based on the structure of the book, it should be really easy to revise or add specific techniques. In addition, many of the techniques are common to other fields of chemistry. This textbook would be a good resource for any course or lab that covers synthesis.
The terminology used is accessible for the intended audience. The accompanying images made the text easy to read and follow. The technical terms used are standard for the field and used appropriately.
The structure of the textbook was consistent from section to section and easy to follow. Each section was arranged in roughly the same order, making information easy to find within a section. The terminology was explained thoroughly and used appropriately.
Each unit is relatively self-contained, meaning that units can be treated independently in any order.
The information is presented in a reasonable order. Related information is presented together and there is a clear logic and theme within each section. While the specific order may not follow my classes perfectly, the sections are modular enough that it should not be a problem.
All of the images are clear. The layout of the pages make it easy to find the appropriate information on a given page. Section breaks and chapter breaks are clearly marked for easy navigation. As an electronic text, the clear headings for each section make finding the right information easy.
While any long published work likely has a few grammatical errors or typos, I did not notice any in my reading.
This textbook is appropriately focused on the science. The discussions are approachable for anyone in a chemistry course, regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, or background.
This book is an excellent resource for not only introductory organic students, but for upper level students as well. We will be using this text in the coming semesters as a resource for our courses. In addition, I have assigned this text to all of my research students as well.
The text covers the general techniques used in organic chemistry very well. The detail is consistent with a majors section course. All major types of equipment and there uses are covered in sufficient detail that a student should be able to... read more
The text covers the general techniques used in organic chemistry very well. The detail is consistent with a majors section course. All major types of equipment and there uses are covered in sufficient detail that a student should be able to understand the use prior to actual practice in lab. The pictures, which are required for a comprehensive understanding of the proper use of equipment and successful completion of techniques, are excellent. In fact, the pictures are one thing that sets this text apart from our current text. Students will be better able to complete tasks because the pictures provide a better view of the technique. Videos done as well as the pictures would be even better. The Chromatography chapter is particularly good and complete, and again, the pictures included provide an excellent view to go along with the chapter text. Coverage of NMR/ IR and Safety would add to the text. There are Safety Notes throughout the text. A general chapter on risk assessment is being recognized as an important part of a chemistry course. The table of contents as an index is easy to use and navigate. As terms are explained within the text, I don't know that a glossary is necessary.
I found no inaccuracies and no biases. The coverage of topics is at a level that allows the text to be used in multiple courses, from organic lab for health related majors to chemistry majors, advanced lab to new undergraduate researchers. The author cannot include every possible equipment type used in an undergraduate lab. We currently use elastomeric microscale equipment rather than the Williamson type. This is a minor issue.
As organic chemistry changes, we often incorporate current equipment for new reactions. That is our training. I see no reason this text will become outdated. The outline of the text should make any changes straightforward to incorporate. Our current texts have changed little in 20 years. A major advance of this text is the use of color pictures to enhance the text. One area to look to is Chromatography. Flash chromatography is typical for organic labs today, but we are moving from air pressure to solvent delivery pumps, which use different connections and columns.
I found the text easy to read. Jargon was minimal and explained with use.
The text is very consistent. I would expect this with a text written by one author.
Each chapter can easily be assigned as a self contained unit. As every organic laboratory course has a different flow of material, no text can follow exactly. I see no problem with assigning sections to students from this text.
The organization of the text is not in the order we currently cover material in our course. But that is not really a consideration as no text presents material in exactly the same order we cover in our course. Jumping around is normal for an organic laboratory course. This will not be a problem for us as we use this text. The topics are presented in a logical and clear manner within each chapter. That is the most important point.
I saw no distortion of images or text. I found nothing in the text that should distract the reader.
I found no grammatical errors.
Organic chemistry is focused on compounds, equipment, and techniques and as such there is less attention paid to cultural issues as is typical in other courses. The only place for inclusion would be in the pictures included in the text. The pictures focus on the equipment and techniques, and any people pictured in part usually have gloved hands. More inclusion of different peoples could be done in any updates to pictures, but I do not see it as currently detracting from the text.
I will be incorporating this text in my Organic Lab section next semester and will also use it as a text for my research students as they prepare for summer research.
The textbook provided a comprehensive and in depth coverage of the both laboratory technique and instrumentation used in an introductory organic chemistry lab. The summaries at the end of each topic would be a wonderful quick reference and... read more
The textbook provided a comprehensive and in depth coverage of the both laboratory technique and instrumentation used in an introductory organic chemistry lab. The summaries at the end of each topic would be a wonderful quick reference and overview for a student. My only complaint would be that the coverage of chromatography did not include drip column chromatography. Column chromatography is not limited to flash column chromatography.
The only area I felt was biased was in the area of chromatography. Not all academic labs are set up to do flash columns.
Organic technique doesn't change. Instrumentation does change, but the instruments presently used in a teaching lab will probably not become outdated any time soon. Even the images used will probably still be relevant 10 to 20 years from now.
't The textbook was a pleasure to read. Although the topic was technical, it didn't feel like a heavy read. The writing style should be very accessible to a typical organic student. The use of images made the book not boring to read. The textbook i sm presently using is very dry. There is just too much text where an image would be much more informative. Another lab book I have used was funny to read but lack the completness of this textbook and the humor got in the way of clarity.
It was obvious that the textbook was written by a single person because it was very consistent in style and the use of terminology.
The textbook is well structured. As a reference guide, it would be easy for a student to locate the theory behind a technique, a detailed explanation of a technique, or a quick summary of a technique. It is much better than any other lab textbook I have read.
The topics are presented in a well organized fashion. The images used are well placed and add to the clarity of the text.
I did have difficulty with navigating in the book. Every time I opened it I had to scroll down to where I had left off rather than clicking on the topic I left off on in a table of contents. The book lacked a table of contents.
I did not notice any grammatical errors, but then again I was not looking for any.
I loved this book.I will definitely be adding it to my course books for the second quarter of organic chemistry this winter and it will completely replace my present lab textbook next fall.
Table of Contents
- Chapter 1: General Techniques
- Chapter 2: Chromatography
- Chapter 3: Crystallization
- Chapter 4: Extraction
- Chapter 5: Distillation
- Chapter 6: Miscellaneous Techniques
- Chapter 7: Technique Summaries
About the Book
This resource was created by Lisa Nichols (chemistry faculty at Butte Community College in Northern California) as a result of an academic sabbatical leave in the Fall-2015 to Spring 2016 term. The target audience are undergraduate students in organic chemistry.
In this resource you will find theory and procedures on the main organic lab techniques (chromatography, crystallization, extraction, distillation) as well as general concepts on how to set up and heat apparatuses (see the Table of Contents tab for a more complete listing of topics).
All procedures are accompanied by step-by-step pictures, and graphics are heavily utilized throughout the resource.
About the Contributors
Lisa Nichols obtained a Bachelors of Science degree in chemistry from California State University, Chico in 2001 and a Master’s degree in organic chemistry from Stanford University in 2003. At the time of this project she had taught chemistry fulltime for 12 years at Butte Community College (in Oroville, northern California, near C.S.U. Chico), with an emphasis on teaching majors-level organic chemistry.