# Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Genick Bar-Meir

Copyright Year: 2014

Publisher: Potto Project

Language: English

## Conditions of Use

Free Documentation License (GNU)

Free Documentation License (GNU)

## Reviews

This book covers many basic and important concepts of fluid mechanics, such as fluid statics, potential flow, compressible flows in one-dimensional and two-dimensional, and multi-phase flow. They are adequate for an entry-level course. The title... read more

This book covers many basic and important concepts of fluid mechanics, such as fluid statics, potential flow, compressible flows in one-dimensional and two-dimensional, and multi-phase flow. They are adequate for an entry-level course. The title of the book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics” seems inaccurate since many other concepts are not introduced (e.g., internal flow, external flow, laminar and turbulent flow, lift and drag, etc). The coming edits may cover above important and basic concepts, however, the update on the book stopped in 2013.

Besides a few of missing symbols and inconsistencies in nomenclature, the book seems accurate.

The book is quite relevant to the field of fluid mechanics. Unfortunately, the book is a little bit outdated, which doesn’t contain recent development of fluid mechanics. Some important, basic concepts of fluid mechanics, such as micro/nano flows should be introduced to students.

The book is somehow confusing, especially in equations. All terminologies should be properly introduced. Some most important dimensionless number, such as Reynolds number, should be introduced earlier in the book.

The book is pretty consistent except for some minor errors or typos.

The book is well organized.

Overall, the structure and flow seems fine. The author may want to keep working on the chapter of fluid statics.

The interface needs to be improved to engage students more. Some of the figures are too small to read, such as Fig. 1.10.

It seems fine, some minor errors or typos don’t cause significant confusion.

N/A

I teach mechanics regularly, but I don’t have extensive research in fluid mechanics. I think the author did a great job to provide students with quick review of thermodynamics, mechanics, and appendix of mathematics for fluid mechanics. It could be more helpful to add more examples and end-of-section problems.

There only seemed to be an online version to review. If I compare this book against introductory undergraduate Fluid Mechanics texts such as Munson et al., Cengel and Cimbala, and Crowe et al., it is not comprehensive. I agree with a previous... read more

There only seemed to be an online version to review. If I compare this book against introductory undergraduate Fluid Mechanics texts such as Munson et al., Cengel and Cimbala, and Crowe et al., it is not comprehensive. I agree with a previous reviewer that the first few chapters are similar in their coverage, but key topics are missing. Boundary layers, laminar / turbulent / transitional flow, internal and pipe flow, external flow and flow over a flat plate, lift and drag, and open channel flow are not discussed. (In the Front Matter’s “To Do” section, the author indicates that some of these sections will be developed in the future.) In its overall tone and approach, I would say it is similar to the more technical, equation-based approach of Munson et al. However, in the About the Book section, the author does indicate that the purpose behind this book was to prep students for his Compressible Flow book. “The topic of fluid mechanics was chosen just to fill the introduction chapter to compressible flow.” In this regard, the contents seem to fill the role for which it was designed.

There were several typos throughout the text. Most the equations seemed correct. A LaTeX interpreter was used on all the pages, and some of the code wasn’t interpreted or a symbol/variable was missing.

As mentioned in the Comprehensiveness section, the first few topics of typical introductory textbooks very briefly introduced and then derivations commence. The relevance/case studies that typical texts provide are not present. The author does move into gas dynamics and multiphase flow (which has a much more thorough introduction than most of the chapters.

I echo a previous reviewer that undergraduate students learning Fluid Mechanics for the first time would most likely be intimidated by the presentation of this book. The lack of analogies to common experiences or case studies of recent or historical events does not seem to engage the reader.

The RTT sections (Mass, Momentum, and Energy) seemed to be a great opportunity for the author to provide the reader with a consistent approach to the respective derivations. Unfortunately, this was not the case. Other sections seem relatively consistent in their approach.

The length of sections are typical for a textbook of this type. However, because of some of the derivations, most of the section could not be reorganized without confusing the reader.

The chapters were in an appropriate order as well as the sections. As for being clear, see my comments above on Clarity and Accuracy.

There were several figures where the font size for the axes titles was very small to the point of being unreadable. Plots were inconsistent in their formatting throughout. Parts of equations and citation were not interpreted correctly. The lack of white space also made the material feel overwhelming.

There were a multitude of grammar and spelling errors.

Since the presentation was heavily equation/derivation based and analogies to common experiences or case studies of recent or historical events were not included, the presentation is relatively neutral toward cultural relevance.

In the "About the Book" section, the author makes some bold statements: "In writing the chapter on fluid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic." "With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the field but change some of the way things are taught." I appreciate the author's confidence and there might be some truth of the second statement in his overall approach of reaching back to thermodynamics and then continuing beyond to multiphase flows. Unfortunately, the bridge between these areas is weak, though, with time and continued revisions, the author may develop the text to a point for larger consumption.

This book covers most of the basic material of an introductory course in fluid mechanics. However, some important topics such as vapor pressure, laminar and turbulent flow, and Buckingham Pi Theorem are not covered. Also, the book doesn't provide... read more

This book covers most of the basic material of an introductory course in fluid mechanics. However, some important topics such as vapor pressure, laminar and turbulent flow, and Buckingham Pi Theorem are not covered. Also, the book doesn't provide an index or glossary.

The book content appear to be accurate, error-free, and unbiased.

As in most fluid mechanics books, the material in this book is essential to any basic fluid mechanics course. Thus the book content is not expected to become obsolete anytime soon. However, the book could be enhanced by adding some examples of contemporary applications of fluid mechanics.

The clarity of the book material is enhanced by the many colored graphics included in the book. However, some of the book material require a level of mathematics that may not be entirely mastered by sophomore or junior undergraduate engineering students.

The material in the book is presented in a consistent manner using internationally recognized units and terminology.

The book sections are concise and self contained. Advanced material is clearly identified.

The book is divided into chapters that are logically organized to gradually introduce the material required to understand subsequent chapters.

The book doesn't suffer from any interface issues.

The text is written in proper English with no grammatical errors.

There are no cultural issues in the book.

The book doesn't provide end-of-chapter or homework problems for students to practice solving problems on their own.

This book covers fluid mechanics with a review of thermodynamics and mechanics. Bernoulli's equation is derived without any examples to apply it. Also head loss, internal flow and external flow are not covered in this book. Surprisingly, the most... read more

This book covers fluid mechanics with a review of thermodynamics and mechanics. Bernoulli's equation is derived without any examples to apply it. Also head loss, internal flow and external flow are not covered in this book. Surprisingly, the most important dimensionless number, Reynolds number finally showed up in Chapter 9. The concept of laminar and turbulent flows are not discussed.

The large amount of typos make it difficult to judge. Equation 2.38 only works for constant specific heat, which is not mentioned by the author.

The book is not equipped with recent developments in this field. Undergraduate will have difficulty to go through this book.

Too many equations that are not clearly explained. Lots of grammar issues.

The unit of energy should be kJ instead of kj, which is used in this book.

The organization of the book is fine.

The organization of the book is OK. More examples of introductory will help students to better understand the material.

Lots of figures has small font size which make it difficult to read. Some equations do not have equation number assigned.

The unit in some tables are inconsistent. There are some grammar issues, for example, "un symmetrical" should be "unsymmetrical".

Nothing of significance.

The text provides a great initial open source documentation for fluid mechanics. I would like to take advantage of this book for my hydraulics and water resources engineering classes. For my classes, the control volume and dimensional analyses are... read more

The text provides a great initial open source documentation for fluid mechanics. I would like to take advantage of this book for my hydraulics and water resources engineering classes. For my classes, the control volume and dimensional analyses are great. The index is easy to follow and directs the reader to the desired chapters.

I could not find any errors so far. I believe that once more professors/students start using the book we can provide a more comprehensive review on any typos or errors.

Yes, the content is up to date and the advantage is that fluid dynamics will be part of our engineering education for a long time.

yes, the text flows well. However, a little more spacing would benefit the transition from text to equations and figures. It feels a little cramped as is. Maybe just adding a couple of blank lines would already help.

yes, the text is consistent

indeed, I think this is a strength of the book. See my comments on item 1. I actually intend to use parts of the book for my class on a related subject. Additional modules can be added over time.

yes, the book is well organized and logical. Additional examples and figures would help to engage the students more, Especially in the introductory paragraphs.

the interface is rather on the simple side. Which might be good to avoid distraction, however, additional figures and examples could engage the students a little more.

I did not find any errors, however I did not perform an extensive grammar review

perfect

Great addition to the open text book library. I will certainly use portion of it for my upcoming classes. I look forward to additions on hydraulics to the contents. Hopefully exercises would also be added in the future.

The material cover in the book is a mixture of a basic fluid course, with a good review of thermodynamics and mechanics, with some higher level topics in fluids such as compressible flow and potential flow chapters. However, it ignores complete... read more

The material cover in the book is a mixture of a basic fluid course, with a good review of thermodynamics and mechanics, with some higher level topics in fluids such as compressible flow and potential flow chapters. However, it ignores complete internal and external flow, which are important applications for most engineers covering fluids.

The material presented seemed accurate, although there are some mistakes in some equations, specially in chapters 9 and 10.

The content on the book seems up to date, and will be applicable for a few years to come.

Although most of the text was well written, there are a few parts where it was unclear what the author was trying to explain. It could be just typo, but at time it looked like the explanation didn't make sense.

The is consistency throughout the book

The text is well organized an could be used in a modular fashion.

The book is well organized, and presented in a clean fashion. I'm not sure that the review of thermodynamics and mechanics are required or in the appropriate place, but they are independent and clearly marked.

The online resource look decent, but not very attractive to the sight.

There are some errors in the book, with missing word or unclear definitions or explanations. Having said that, the review by several people should help in the correction of the mistakes.

N/A

Most of the material is presented in a clear manner, the book itself cannot be described as a basic course in fluids, as is missing some topics and expands too much in some advance ones. Another potential issue is the lack of practice problems in every chapter. It would have been good for the book to the some resources in this area. I could see myself using some of the content as support material, but I would not use this book as my primary source.

I am looking at this as a first textbook in fluid mechanics for undergraduate engineering students. While it covers most of the normal topics, there are a few significant omissions. In particular, boundary layers, laminar / turbulent /... read more

I am looking at this as a first textbook in fluid mechanics for undergraduate engineering students. While it covers most of the normal topics, there are a few significant omissions. In particular, boundary layers, laminar / turbulent / transitional flow, open flow (flat plate), pipe flow, lift, and drag. These are very important topics omissions for an undergraduate course, yet it does go into compressible flow and multiphase flow which are not usually covered in the first semester of fluid mechanics.

There are a lot of inconsistencies in notation which make this hard to really judge. There were also a lot of typos.

There were not many current or recent developments included. This made it particularly hard to engage the students. Recent issues such as micro-scale flow were missing and the examples were pretty much the same situations as I saw in my first fluid mechanics book.

This is probably the weakest aspect of the book. I had several students that had already taken their undergraduate fluids course read through it and all of them felt lost trying to follow it. The most common comment was that it looked like a huge list of equations with a little bit of explanation between them. Even the introduction, usually a pretty quick read, became very intimidating after the first three sections. It was almost impossible for them to follow. Students usually struggle with the Reynolds Transport Theorem and differential analysis in my classes, and they commented that this book made them even more confusing.

There is little consistency in how things are presented. Reading through some chapters, it almost felt like there were missing sections.

This book does a pretty good job of keeping sections down to a reasonable length. The breakdown and length of chapters is reasonable.

At the chapter level, it was good. Within the chapters, there were a lot of problems. Topics often seemed out of place, or referenced in examples before they are explained or introduced. The chapter on fluid statics was particularly troublesome from this aspect.

Most of the figures were readable, but the overall quality seemed to diminish as the book went forward. They were also very inconsistent as if each were done by a different person with a different style. This made the book feel even more confusing to my students.

A lot of grammar and spelling problems. Very inconsistent with tenses and active / passive voice.

I saw nothing of significance here.

After reading through the book, I also read the review from Jiarong Hong and my observations and comments fall pretty closely in line with his. The book does not list any updates since his review.

This book is intended to serve as an undergraduate textbook. Although it captures some core materials of fluid mechanics such as integral and differential analysis, it misses many important introductory concepts and materials that are suitable for... read more

This book is intended to serve as an undergraduate textbook. Although it captures some core materials of fluid mechanics such as integral and differential analysis, it misses many important introductory concepts and materials that are suitable for undergraduate level and that are often emphasized in many other standard textbooks. The important materials that are missing include thorough discussions on Lagrangian and Eulerian perspectives, Bernoulli equation, pipe flows, detailed discussion on boundary layer, Drag and Lift, and the concept of laminar and turbulent flows, etc. Specifically, there are only 2-3 paragraphs that introduce Lagrangian and Eulerian perspective very briefly. There is no discussion on laminar to turbulence transition, the classical flows over a flat plate and fully-developed pipe flows including famous Moody chart. There is very little discussion on Bernoulli equation, which is probably the most memorable element in the fluid mechanics for the undergraduates. These missing materials are extremely important because: (1) they reflect the unique nature of fluids; (2) they can be easily appreciated by undergraduates; (3) they are widely used in many engineering applications. Instead of focusing on these basic elements, the book introduces many materials that are rarely-seen from standard textbooks (e.g. Pushka equations and Nusselt’s methods) and that are mathematically complex, which cannot be easily absorbed by undergraduates. The solutions for many example problems are incomplete, many of which the author did not put numerical values and just left the equations with "=". This book does not have any exercise problems for the students. However, it is meritorious that the book contains a chapter that reviews the classical mechanics and an appendix that summarizes the mathematics for fluid mechanics, which are very useful review materials for undergraduates to get ready for fluid mechanics.

Considering the fact that this book contains so many grammar errors and inconsistencies, I am skeptical on the accuracy of some of materials that presented in this book. One example is on the discussion of surface tension. The book criticizes the explanation of surface tension from many other textbooks. First of all, the book failed to provide a clear microscopic explanation of surface tension by itself. Second, I feel this book might misunderstand the usage of “imbalance” from some of standard textbooks (I did not check every single one of them). The second example is that this book has a long discussion on Nusselt’s technique in the chapter of dimensional analysis. The material is not included in any textbooks of fluid mechanics that I have seen before. I also did some search on google scholar, and I didn’t find much information related to the derivation and applications of this technique. So I don’t know whether this material has been well-accepted and justified by the fluid community.

This book does not contain any most recent development in the field of fluid mechanics. Many subject index and author index provided at the end of book need to be updated. I don't know what mechanism that author used to update this book. In my opinion, there are plenty of improvements needed. The author does not seem to have an efficient way to manage the updates. I noticed some inconsistencies resulting from the different updates.

The clarity of the text is significantly hampered by the grammar errors, poorly-written sentences and inconsistencies, which is largely caused by the fact that English is only the third language of this author. The clarity of this book is also affected by the organization of materials, e.g. many technical terms are used before they are officially introduced (or some of them are not even introduced in this book).

My comment is based on the pdf version in July, 2013. There are some inconsistencies in the usage of terminology and framework. internally. Some portions do not seem to be completed. Some subjects laid out in Fig1.1 are not presented in this book.

The modularity of this book seems to be fine. There are clear divisions of sections and subsections.

The general organization of the materials seems to be fine. However, when it comes to down more detailed knowledge, the book is not well organized. For example, the Bulk Modulus is presented even before the concept of Bulk Modulus is introduced. Some advanced subjects are introduced way before the readers have adequate exposure on the basics of fluid mechanics. Different types of instability are mentioned in different places. The discussions on surface tension appear in different sections. In addition, there is a lack of overview or summary sentences that highlights the key messages from each and multiple subsections. In many chapters, the transition from section to section is abrupt.

The quality of many figures do not fit textbook standards. It is impossible to see the labels in some of the figures because of the low quality of images or the tiny font sizes (e.g. Figure 1.6, 1.7 and many others). Some of the figures are poorly-made and quite confusing. There are also some inconsistencies in the layout of the different sections.

This book is full of conspicuous grammar errors including wrong spelling ("et al" was written as "at el", “pul” of “pull”, etc.), the misuse of tenses and active/passive voices, erroneous forms of verbs and improper prepositions, etc. I can easily find a sentence with 2-3 spelling errors. A portion of sentences are not well written and do not a good readability. This is understandable since the English is only the third language of the author. However, it is evident that little time and attention have been paid to proofread this book, and to polish each sentence and the organization of sentences. For this book to become a textbook for English-speaking readers, significant improvement is needed on the writing.

I did not find anything that was culturally insensitive or offensive in any way.

## Table of Contents

- 1 Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
- 2 Review of Thermodynamics
- 3 Review of Mechanics
- 4 Fluids Statics

I Integral Analysis

- 5 Mass Conservation
- 6 Momentum Conservation
- 7 Energy Conservation

II Differential Analysis

- 8 Differential Analysis
- 9 Dimensional Analysis
- 10 Potential Flow
- 11 Compressible Flow One Dimensional
- 12 Compressible Flow 2-Dimensional
- 13 Multi-Phase Flow

## About the Book

The topic of fluid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, and civil engineering. In fact, it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering, and electrical engineering. While the emphasis is somewhat different in this book, the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the previous geniuses who work in this field. In this book it is hoped to insert, what and when a certain model is suitable than other models.

One of the difference in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase flow. Clearly, multiphase is an advance topic. However, some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase fluid.

This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The topic of fluid mechanics was chosen just to fill the introduction chapter to compressible flow. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. In writing the chapter on fluid statics, there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one.

This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E.R.G. Eckert. Eckert, aside from his research activity, wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. Up to Egret's book, the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc), Ernst Schmidt, and their colleagues, must be taught in engineering classes. His book met strong criticism in which some called to "burn" his book. Today, however, there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert's doctrine. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert's work will criticize this work. Indeed, the previous book, on compressible flow, met its opposition. For example, anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing, he just doesn't know from where and what. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. As a wise person says "don't tell me that it is wrong, show me what is wrong"; this is the only reply. With all the above, it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the field but change some of the way things are taught.

The book is organized into several chapters which, as a traditional textbook, deals with a basic introduction to the fluid properties and concepts (under construction). The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. The next topic is statics. When the Static Chapter was written, this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. As traditional texts in this field, ideal flow will be presented with the issue of added mass and added forces (under construction). The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. An introduction to multi-phase flow, not a traditional topic, will be presented next (again under construction). The next two chapters will deal with open channel flow and gas dynamics. At this stage, dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction).

## About the Contributors

### Author

**Genick Bar-Meir** holds a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Dr. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. R.G.E. Eckert. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the field of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes fluid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. Currently, he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and software for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). The author enjoys encouraging his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams.

In his early part of his professional life, Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. Now, this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas, books and software.

He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building block for many other models. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations. As the change in the view occurred, Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers, the critical piston velocity in a partially filled chamber (related to hydraulic jump), application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. All the models have practical applicability. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). For example, the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007, and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. Moreover, the author’s models were used in numerical works, in GM, British industry, Spain, and Canada.