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    Read more about Anatomy and Physiology 2e - 2e

    Anatomy and Physiology 2e - 2e

    (83 reviews)

    J. Gordon Betts, Tyler, Texas

    Kelly A. Young, Long Beach, Califronia

    James A Wise, Hampton, Virginia

    Copyright Year:

    ISBN 13: 9781938168130

    Publisher: OpenStax

    Language: English

    Formats Available

    Conditions of Use

    Attribution Attribution
    CC BY


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    Reviewed by Alex Zuo, Associate Professor, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley on 5/7/24

    The textbook offers a comprehensive exploration of A & P, with a wide array of topics tailored specifically for students embarking on a rigorous course. Its content is meticulously designed to cater to the needs of majors of this field,... read more

    Reviewed by Chris Aiken, Professor, Smith College on 2/26/24

    In general I think that the book is very well done and is comprehensive in its scope. However, there are two areas that I think it could be improved on. The first has to do with the connective tissue/fascial system. Although there is a brief... read more

    Reviewed by Beatriz Castro, Lecturer, Purdue University on 12/11/23

    The textbook extensively explores anatomy and physiology topics designed for students undertaking a two-semester course. It is crafted for majors in biology and health-related fields like nursing, pharmacy, and pre-med, providing crucial... read more

    Reviewed by Adebowale Ogunjirin, Associate Professor, Gallaudet University on 6/13/23

    This book encompasses a variety of topics similar to what you would find in a textbook sold commercially. Additionally, it provides relatable examples that students can easily understand. read more

    Reviewed by Mira Kolodkin, Associate Professor, City Colleges of Chicago on 6/5/23

    The book covers most chapters that one would expect in A&P with sufficient detail. The electrophysiology sections could do a better job of connecting channel activity to cellular processes but an instructor can fill in the blanks for students. read more

    Reviewed by Nirakar Sahoo, Assistant Professor, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley on 12/2/22

    This textbook covers all the topics in anatomy and physiology that are necessary for a regular undergraduate degree. These topics range from the structure and function of individual cells to the many systems of the body. Each chapter gives a... read more

    Reviewed by Kimberly Huey, Professor, Drake University on 11/22/22

    The Index is comprehensive and includes links to the appropriate location in the text. The Chapters on the Cardiovascular (CV) system were of higher quality and more comprehensive than the Muscle tissue chapter and the number and clarity of the... read more

    Reviewed by Andrew Best, Assistant Professor, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts on 11/22/22

    This text covers all topics required for a college Anatomy and Physiology course in a logical sequence. Each entry in the index hyperlinks to sections in the text. My only constructive criticism regarding comprehensiveness- and this applies to... read more

    Reviewed by Jennifer Chason, Massage therapy program director, adjunct instructor, Spartanburg Community College on 9/20/22

    The content is thorough with a good balance of overview/summary vs. detailed explanations, and the summary section at the end of each chapter is a great feature for both student and instructor. The chapter-specific glossary of key words is... read more

    Reviewed by Sydny VanderVeen-Borrayo, Senior Lecturer, University of Wisconsin - Superior on 9/19/22

    This textbook covers all the material covered in any traditional anatomy & physiology two-semester course. The material is organized in a logical format, starting with basic cell function and working into tissues and different organ systems.... read more

    Reviewed by Matthew Hopf, Associate Professor of KInesiology, University of Saint Francis on 5/17/22

    The book contains everything one would expect for a introductory A&P text. read more

    Reviewed by Jorge Canchola, Lecturer II, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley on 12/13/21

    This text covers all the required topics for a two-semester anatomy and physiology course. The sequence of units and chapters flow in a logical manner. The index is adequate, however it is missing some terms/concepts. For example, mitosis is... read more

    Reviewed by Paul Meyers, Adjunct Professor, Massachusetts Department of Higher Education on 6/28/21

    This textbook covers all the pertinent systems of the body in a comprehensive and palatable matter. The textbook also does an excellent job of relating the anatomy and physiology to the student in practical, medical, and real-life healthcare... read more

    Reviewed by Tina Ramme, Associate Professor, Massachusetts Bay Community College on 6/8/21

    The textbook provides good foundational content using a systems approach to for Anatomy and Physiology . There is consistency throughout the book and within each chapter. Each section has learning objectives listed. Support materials are also... read more

    Reviewed by Salvatore Gammaro, Professor, Massasoit Community College on 5/27/21

    This seems to cover most material when compared to other popular college textbooks. I usually say that all A&P textbooks have the same material, but they are just different "art books". There are certain aspects that are notable in this... read more

    Reviewed by Angela Bojrab, Associate Professor, Trine University on 5/19/21

    This book covers all the areas needed for a complete anatomy and physiology course. read more

    Reviewed by Jonathan Dyhr, Assistant Professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 5/7/21, updated 5/26/21

    The book covers all of the key topics in Anatomy and Physiology. It is not as comprehensive as other standard A&P texts, particularly in the anatomy chapters. There are two caveats I would make to this. First, many other standard A&P texts... read more

    Reviewed by Brian Logan, Dean of Health Sciences, AP instructor, Aiken Technical College on 5/3/21

    This text is an excellent resource for teaching our pre-nursing and pre allied health students. It satisfies all of our objectives. read more

    Reviewed by Anna Glowinski, Assistant Professor, Trine University on 4/20/21

    This book has a very comprehensive list of learning objectives for each chapter. This is then further broken down into learning objectives for each lesson of each chapter. This is very useful for me since I use daily learning targets in class as... read more

    Reviewed by Azmia Javed, Instructor Anatomy and Physiology, College of DuPage on 4/19/21

    This textbook is very comprehensive and covers a wide array of human anatomy and physiology concepts required for two- or four-years colleges. The topics are organized in sections which are aligned with levels of organization. The content list is... read more

    Reviewed by Jeff Beer, chair & professor, Manchester University on 3/7/21

    The units listed in this text were very informative. They covered all content at for the level of text. Felt the descriptions and content was more than enough for the level of education for a course with this text. The background information for a... read more

    Reviewed by T Rahman, Adjunct lecturer, New York City College of Technology on 3/3/21

    Overall the text book is good when compare to other text book . OpenStax text book all the chapter is organized ,and some diagram is good for students. This book is very comprehensive. I compare the text book with other commercial text but... read more

    Reviewed by Eric Green, Associate Professor, Salt Lake Community College on 2/23/21

    Overall, I found this text to be very comprehensive. There are some differences between the terminology and approaches compared to what I am used to, but there were no significant gaps that I could see. read more

    Reviewed by Carly Jordan, Associate Professor, The George Washington University on 1/26/21

    All of the expected units for a thorough anatomy & physiology course are included, and the table of contents and index are clear. The search feature on the online version is very helpful. read more

    Reviewed by Kelsey Murray, PhD Student/Instructor, James Madison University on 11/6/20

    The text is comprehensive and provides a good foundation for anatomy and physiology. It has the same structure for each chapter, providing the learning objectives at the start. The additional resources at the end of each chapter helps provided... read more

    Reviewed by Jennifer Harrell, Professor, Community College of Aurora on 8/8/20

    There were times when I wish there was more depth on a topic/homeostatic process and other times when I wanted less information (technology used clinically). This is a comment I make about every textbook though, and I would image most professors... read more

    Reviewed by Dennis Delfert, Instructor, Central Oregon Community College on 6/26/20

    This text is set up like most anatomy and physiology texts in terms of the topics covered and the relative order of those topics. The index made it easy to search for topics. read more

    Reviewed by Solomon Singer, Instructor, Lane Community College on 6/23/20

    The Anatomy is remarkably thorough and is an excellent resource. I thoroughly compared the contents to a $180 anatomy textbook for the course, and it was just as comprehensive as the expensive Pearson text. In fact, it had some minor details which... read more

    Reviewed by Lameese Akacem, Instructor, University of Colorado Boulder on 6/11/20

    This text book takes a systems level approach to anatomy and physiology. It is compressive and has chapters dedicated to the major anatomical/physiological system. Each chapter begins with a list of learning objectives. Each section further... read more

    Reviewed by Lawrence Roberge, Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology, Worcester State University on 6/1/20

    the book is a good review of basic human anatomy & physiology. It would required further diagrams and detail to make it enriching for the needs of a nursing student (or pre-med), but it does serve as an excellent primer for the content rich... read more

    Reviewed by Brent Shell, Assistant Teaching Professor, University of Massachusetts Lowell on 5/30/20

    The text covers all areas you would expect in a systems based approach to A&P that a first year college student would take. Some sections could use a bit more detail, but using this book with content from other OpenStax titles (Biology 2e and... read more

    Reviewed by Neil Detweiler, Assistant Professor, Goshen College on 3/19/20

    I find this book to be similarly comprehensive to the Marieb and Hoehn A&P text, and slightly more comprehensive than the Hole's A&P text. It is more than sufficient for an undergraduate level A&P course. The figures vary in quality... read more

    Reviewed by Nicolette Giasolli, Lecturer, Metropolitan State University of Denver on 3/4/20

    The ideas are all presented however, I do not believe the manner in which the material is presented is effective for our student population. It seems the authors have forgotten what it is like to be a first year A & P student. There are an... read more

    Reviewed by Nicholas Pollock, Assistant Professor of Instruction, University of Texas at Arlington on 1/28/20

    Overall, this text covers the bases for A&P. Each chapter and subsection contains clear and detailed learning objectives, which I really like and think are useful for students to use as a roadmap. I also like how each chapter has a clear... read more

    Reviewed by Nancy Djerdjian, Biology Instructor, Anoka-Ramsey Community College (Minnesota State) on 6/11/19

    This textbook thoroughly covers the typical topics taught in a systems-based approach to Anatomy & Physiology. read more

    Reviewed by Didaciane Keys, Department Chair Surgical Technology/Dialysis/Sterile Processing, Southern University Shreveport on 4/21/19, updated 5/6/19

    The table of contents indicates that this book covers the standard topics for an A&P text. The text does not have a glossary per se, but has an extensive index of topics and terms that are hyperlinked to the appropriate location in the text or... read more

    Reviewed by Regenia Campbell, Assistant Professor, Emory and Henry College on 4/12/19

    Covers all topics in detail appropriate for a two semester course. However, some introductory information is missing from later organ systems that may make students feel like they are jumping in the deep end. read more

    Reviewed by Morgan Wilson, Associate Professor, Biology and Environmental Studies, Hollins University on 3/28/19

    This text takes a traditional systems approach to the anatomy and physiological mechanisms of the human body. In addition, the opening chapters also provide a reductionist approach, laying a strong foundation in the underlying molecular... read more

    Reviewed by Cynthia Surmacz, Professor, Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania on 3/15/19

    The Anatomy and Physiology Open textbook was comprehensive, covering topics typically found in an introductory Anatomy and Physiology textbooks on the market. Most Anatomy and Physiology texts follow a fairly traditional order of topics. This open... read more

    Reviewed by Melissa Kelley, Assistant Professor, Western Oregon University on 3/1/19

    The book thoroughly covers the standard topics for Anatomy and physiology. It covers the major organ systems, and lays out the topics in a familiar and logical way. The chapter glossaries are nice, and the index is good, though I think a glossary... read more

    Reviewed by Sultan Jenkins, Assistant Professor, LAGCC on 1/15/19

    The textbook covers all of the major concepts in A&P, in addition to relating the concepts to real-world application. read more

    Reviewed by Medhavi Ambardar, Assistant Professor, Fort Hays State University on 11/29/18

    Overall, this textbook covers all of the areas I would expect an A&P text to cover. It is comparable in many ways to the other popular texts out there. There are some areas in which I would have liked to see more detail. One such place is in... read more

    Reviewed by Jennifer Mraz-Craig, Lecturer, Southern Utah University on 8/2/18

    I found the text to be comprehensive, covering the same topics of information as other Anatomy & Physiology textbooks I have seen, and in approximately the same order (smallest levels to larger levels of organization). There is not a section I... read more

    Reviewed by Joyce Kaplan, Faculty, Portland Community College on 6/19/18

    The text is slightly less in depth than the typical pre allied health A&P textbook but does a better job covering many topics in a manner that is accessible to more students including ease of reading and video connections. read more

    Reviewed by Jennifer Evens, Biology Instructor, St. Cloud Technical and Community College on 6/19/18

    The OER text book adequately covers physiologic and anatomical concepts, addressing specific points with the depth and breath students need to understand the processes and continue to build, apply and master their knowledge in this discipline. read more

    Reviewed by Tamara Davault, Biology Lecturer, University of Texas of the Permian Basin on 6/19/18

    This textbook covers all the systems of the body. The table of contents if very detailed and the glossary allows for the reader to link directly to portions the text that discuss the vocabulary term. read more

    Reviewed by Sultan Jenkins, Assistant Professor, LaGuardia Community College on 5/21/18

    The textbook does cover the important concepts in Anatomy and Physiology. I do appreciate a glossary being at the end of each chapter, instead of the usual entire glossary at the end of the textbook. read more

    Reviewed by Mark Garbrecht, Associate Professor of Biology, Winona State University on 5/21/18

    By and large I found the text to be comprehensive in nature for an undergraduate A and P book. Each organ system was addressed in good detail. There were a few areas where a bit more detail could have been provided (eye anatomy; function of some... read more

    Reviewed by Stacie Deaver, Assistant Professor, Virginia Western Community College on 3/27/18

    Overall, this book is comparable to many of the commercially available textbooks on the market and would suffice for an introductory level anatomy and physiology class. I did find it lacking in detail in a few areas, primarily in the detail of the... read more

    Reviewed by Mary Kananen, Assistant Teaching Professor of Biology, Penn State Altoona on 2/1/18

    This book covers the material for an introductory two semester A and P class. The chapter organization allows for a flexible sequence of material. It could easily be used for an 1 semester introductory physiology class or a 1 semester... read more

    Reviewed by Cynthia Savage, KNH Instructor, Miami University on 2/1/18

    The text provides a comprehensive review of Anatomy and Physiology in 6 Units: Levels of Organization, Support and Movement, Regulation, Integration and Control, Fluids and Transport, Energy Maintenance and Environmental Exchange, and Human... read more

    Reviewed by David McLeod , Asst. Professor, James Madison University on 2/1/18

    This text covers the topics of human anatomy and human physiology relatively comprehensively. As in any combined text (or class), it would be nearly impossible to provide in-depth coverage of either topic. Instead, I found that this text covered... read more

    Reviewed by Cindy Adams, Instructor/Advisor, Nutritional Sciences, Penn State University on 2/1/18

    This open Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) textbook is just as comprehensive as one of the most widely-used standard textbooks in this field written by Marieb & Hoehn. This one is organized a bit differently, but all of the important concepts... read more

    Reviewed by Matthew Goff, Assistant Professor, Virginia Western Community College on 2/1/18

    The text covers all of the information that would be typically required for an introductory human anatomy and physiology course. Similar to most other textbooks geared towards an introductory anatomy/physiology course, this book begins with the... read more

    Reviewed by Jedd Billing, Senior Lecturer, University of the West of England on 8/15/17

    The text covers the main systems, with a focus on defining terms and describing and illustrating anatomy. Physiology is provided, but in less detail. Overall, I believe this text is well-suited to provide students with an introduction to anatomy... read more

    Reviewed by Shauna McNulty, Assistant Professor, Umpqua Community College on 6/20/17

    The comprehensiveness of this work is comparable to other anatomy and physiology texts that are geared toward undergraduate coursework. The table of contents is effective and provides a nice linked design to the various sections within the work. ... read more

    Reviewed by Hui Wang, Assistant Professor, Miami University on 6/20/17

    I have used part of chapters of this book for an introduction course. For my purpose, it is very comprehensive. Due to time limitation, I have to skip some sections. As an electronics book, it is easy to identify the content. It seems this is not... read more

    Reviewed by Haifei Shi, Associate Professor, Miami University on 6/20/17

    This book is comprehensive, covered with all organ systems and major topics. It also includes some side topics in many chapters. Additionally, inclusion of chapters of neurological exam and fetal development is unique and impressive. The materials... read more

    Reviewed by Addie Dickson, Instructor, Bossier Parish Community College on 4/11/17

    I am comparing this open source textbook to another widely used, commercially available text. Compared to that, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology is not quite as comprehensive. All major subject areas are covered (i.e. cells, bones, muscles,... read more

    Reviewed by Paula Croonquist, Biology Faculty, Anoka Ramsey Community College on 4/11/17

    This text is very comprehensive including all the traditional chapters in systems' approach of anatomy and physiology instruction with each chapter clearly divided into cohesive topics that coherently describe the structural components and... read more

    Reviewed by Diane Weaver, Instructor, Rogue Community College on 4/11/17

    This text is quite comprehensive, with detailed subject matter on several levels, including various formats for student use and the ability for instructors to customize to their level of instruction. The index does a good job of presenting the... read more

    Reviewed by Gerrit Bouma, Associate Professor, Colorado State University on 12/5/16

    This textbook covers all main areas of physiology in a suitable manner. The outline is very good and the overall organization of the different units is well structured and makes sense. The table of contents and glossary are appropriate, and the... read more

    Reviewed by Edward Johnson, Professor of Human Biology, Central Oregon Community College on 8/21/16

    This textbook is divided into six units and 28 chapters. All material reasonable for a college-level human anatomy and physiology textbook is covered in an progressive and well-organized manner. Each chapter begins with a list of objectives, and... read more

    Reviewed by Gary Heisermann, Assistant Professor, Winona State University on 8/21/16

    The text is quite comprehensive - all major topics are covered. A number of notable and appropriate side topics of interest are included in most chapters. The glossary and index are very good. It would help if the detailed list of topics in... read more

    Reviewed by Bhagwant Sindhu, Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee on 8/21/16

    The textbook is extremely comprehensive for an introductory human anatomy and physiology two course sequence. read more

    Reviewed by Deanna Grimm, Clinical Faculty, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee on 8/21/16

    The text is acceptably comprehensive and covers the material in a clear and concise manner. I am looking at this from a clinical perspective and using the text to review systems related to nursing process and procedures. This text meets my needs... read more

    Reviewed by Ann Parsons, Professor, University of Wisconsin - Stout on 8/21/16

    The text is comprehensive will well-balanced coverage of all organ systems. As with all texts, the authors had to make decisions to pare down the content to make for a manageable text. A hard, but well-done task. The search bar and the list of... read more

    Reviewed by Kay Rezanka, Biology Instructor, Central Lakes College on 1/7/16

    The content contained in "Anatomy and Physiology" is broad and would provide an A&P student with a complete picture of the human body’s structure and function. Instructors will find this text appropriate for a two-semester A&P course. ... read more

    Reviewed by Kayla Brown, Instructor, Colorado State University on 1/7/16

    The overview at the beginning of each chapter and direct objectives at the beginning of each section are very well established, but lie in the "Understanding" category of Bloom's Taxonomy. The "Chapter Reviews" at the end of each chapter are also... read more

    Reviewed by David Kean, Lecturer, University of Iowa on 1/7/16

    I thought that the text was very comprehensiveness and I also liked the organization of the text. They did a very good job blending the anatomy with the physiology of the various systems in the body. I feel that would make a very good text for an... read more

    Reviewed by Petra Redinger, Associate Instructor, Portland Community College on 1/7/16

    I am comparing this text with two Human Anatomy and Physiology textbooks I have used. This online text covers all relevant topics for a 200 level Human A & P class. Overall, I found the text comprehensive and easy to read. The book is geared... read more

    Reviewed by Geeta Kumar, Adjunct Professor, Portland Community College on 1/7/16

    I compared this text book to two others commercial text books I have used in class. The table of contents covers all the main topics and comparable to other text books on the market. Looking through the individual chapters I found the text went... read more

    Reviewed by Jen Grant, Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin-Stout on 1/7/16

    I was pleasantly surprised to find out that this book not only provides a comprehensive treatment of anatomy & physiology but also the fundamental biochemical concepts that underpin these topics. I was particularly pleased at the care taken to... read more

    Reviewed by Jonathan Christie, Instructor, Portland Community College on 1/7/16

    This book was comprehensive, covering the topics expected in a majors-level A&P book. It began with basic cell chemistry, progressed to tissues, and then moved through system-by-system coverage of the body. The breakdown of topics was novel... read more

    Reviewed by Joel Kaufmann, Instructor, Portland Community College on 1/7/16

    The text includes all of the subjects generally covered in a year-long lower division undergraduate A&P course. As when comparing any comparable texts, this one did not go into as much depth in some areas but went into more depth in others. read more

    Reviewed by Theresa Gillian, Instructor, Virginia Tech on 6/10/15

    The text strikes a balance regarding comprehensiveness, providing more details than fundamental A&P texts. The resulting text is lengthy at 1300 pages; however, fine technical points, as discussed in the most comprehensive texts, are avoided.... read more

    Reviewed by Rahul Kane, Faculty, Biology, Century College. on 6/10/15

    The book is very comprehensive and covers the wide range in Anatomy and Physiology topics. It covers the basics from cell and tissue level to organs and organ systems very well. The diagrams and pictures are clear and appropriately labeled. This... read more

    Reviewed by Kristine Squillace Stenlund, Biology Faculty, Dakota County Technical College on 6/10/15

    Overall, this text is comprehensive when compared to other textbooks used in an biology : anatomy and physiology course. The first few chapters are extensive reviews of what I would consider fundamental knowledge my students should have picked up... read more

    Reviewed by Elizabeth Mayers, Biology Instructor, Central Lakes College on 6/10/15

    The book is very comprehensive. The table of contents breaks down each chapter by section, so that you can easily see at the beginning of the book the detailed topics covered throughout, as well as listing page numbers. The glossary is done... read more

    Reviewed by Ari Berkowitz, Professor of Biology, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

    Of course, this textbook should properly be compared to commercial Human Anatomy & Physiology textbooks. I am unable to make that comparison, as I have been teaching Human Physiology using commercial Human Physiology textbooks, so I will... read more

    Reviewed by Eli Bridge, Assistant Professor, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

    With regard to anatomy the book is quite comprehensive. There are some core physiological concepts--mostly molecular level phenomena--that are less well developed in the text (see open commentary) read more

    Reviewed by Kathleen Little, Associate Professor, Exercise Physiology, Cleveland State University on 1/12/15

    This text is extremely comprehensive and comparable to other leading Anatomy & Physiology texts in the current market in terms of its coverage of levels of organization (i.e. chemical, cellular, tissue) and the anatomy & physiology of each... read more

    Reviewed by Heather Ketchum, Associate Professor, University of Oklahoma on 1/12/15

    Please keep in mind that I am only reviewing the physiology portion of this book and hence my comments only reflect that content. Extremely comprehensive! The only reason I did not give this book the highest rating on comprehensiveness is that I... read more

    Table of Contents

    • Unit 1. Levels of Organization
      • Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body
        • 1.1 Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
        • 1.2 Structural Organization of the Human Body
        • 1.3 Functions of Human Life
        • 1.4 Requirements for Human Life
        • 1.5 Homeostasis
        • 1.6 Anatomical Terminology
        • 1.7 Medical Imaging
      • Chapter 2. The Chemical Level of Organization
        • 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
        • 2.2 Chemical Bonds
        • 2.3 Chemical Reactions
        • 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
        • 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
      • Chapter 3. The Cellular Level of Organization
        • 3.1 The Cell Membrane
        • 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
        • 3.3 The Nucleus and DNA Replication
        • 3.4 Protein Synthesis
        • 3.5 Cell Growth and Division
        • 3.6 Cellular Differentiation
      • Chapter 4. The Tissue Level of Organization
        • 4.1 Types of Tissues
        • 4.2 Epithelial Tissue
        • 4.3 Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
        • 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion
        • 4.5 Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
        • 4.6 Tissue Injury and AgingUnit 2. Support and Movement
      • Chapter 5. Integumentary System
        • 5.1 Layers of the Skin
        • 5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin
        • 5.3 Functions of the Integumentary System
        • 5.4 Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
      • Chapter 6. Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
        • 6.1 The Functions of the Skeletal System
        • 6.2 Bone Classification
        • 6.3 Bone Structure
        • 6.4 Bone Formation and Development
        • 6.5 Fractures: Bone Repair
        • 6.6 Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
        • 6.7 Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems
      • Chapter 7. Axial Skeleton
        • 7.1 Divisions of the Skeletal System
        • 7.2 The Skull
        • 7.3 The Vertebral Column
        • 7.4 The Thoracic Cage
        • 7.5 Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
      • Chapter 8. The Appendicular Skeleton
        • 8.1 The Pectoral Girdle
        • 8.2 Bones of the Upper Limb
        • 8.3 The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
        • 8.4 Bones of the Lower Limb
        • 8.5 Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
      • Chapter 9. Joints
        • 9.1 Classification of Joints
        • 9.2 Fibrous Joints
        • 9.3 Cartilaginous Joints
        • 9.4 Synovial Joints
        • 9.5 Types of Body Movements
        • 9.6 Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
        • 9.7 Development of Joints
      • Chapter 10. Muscle Tissue
        • 10.1 Overview of Muscle Tissues
        • 10.2 Skeletal Muscle
        • 10.3 Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
        • 10.4 Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
        • 10.5 Types of Muscle Fibers
        • 10.6 Exercise and Muscle Performance
        • 10.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue
        • 10.8 Smooth Muscle
        • 10.9 Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
      • Chapter 11. The Muscular System
        • 11.1 Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
        • 11.2 Naming Skeletal Muscles
        • 11.3 Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
        • 11.4 Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall, and Thorax
        • 11.5 Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
        • 11.6 Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs
    • Unit 3. Regulation, Integration, and Control
      • Chapter 12. The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
        • 12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
        • 12.2 Nervous Tissue
        • 12.3 The Function of Nervous Tissue
        • 12.4 The Action Potential
        • 12.5 Communication Between NeuronsChapter 13. Anatomy of the Nervous System
      • Chapter 13. Anatomy of the Nervous System
        • 13.1 The Embryologic Perspective
        • 13.2 The Central Nervous System
        • 13.3 Circulation and the Central Nervous System
        • 13.4 The Peripheral Nervous System
      • Chapter 14. The Somatic Nervous System
        • 14.1 Sensory Perception
        • 14.2 Central Processing
        • 14.3 Motor Responses
      • Chapter 15. The Autonomic Nervous System
        • 15.1 Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
        • 15.2 Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
        • 15.3 Central Control
        • 15.4 Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
      • Chapter 16. The Neurological Exam
        • 16.1 Overview of the Neurological Exam
        • 16.2 The Mental Status Exam
        • 16.3 The Cranial Nerve Exam
        • 16.4 The Sensory and Motor Exams
        • 16.5 The Coordination and Gait Exams
      • Chapter 17. The Endocrine System
        • 17.1 An Overview of the Endocrine System
        • 17.2 Hormones
        • 17.3 The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
        • 17.4 The Thyroid Gland
        • 17.5 The Parathyroid Glands
        • 17.6 The Adrenal Glands
        • 17.7 The Pineal Gland
        • 17.8 Gonadal and Placental Hormones
        • 17.9 The Endocrine Pancreas
        • 17.10 Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
        • 17.11 Development and Aging of the Endocrine System
    • Unit 4. Fluids and Transport
      • Chapter 18. The Cardiovascular System: Blood
        • 18.1 An Overview of Blood
        • 18.2 Production of the Formed Elements
        • 18.3 Erythrocytes
        • 18.4 Leukocytes and Platelets
        • 18.5 Hemostasis
        • 18.6 Blood Typing
      • Chapter 19. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
        • 19.1 Heart Anatomy
        • 19.2 Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
        • 19.3 Cardiac Cycle
        • 19.4 Cardiac Physiology
        • 19.5 Development of the Heart
      • Chapter 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
        • 20.1 Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
        • 20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
        • 20.3 Capillary Exchange
        • 20.4 Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
        • 20.5 Circulatory Pathways
        • 20.6 Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
      • Chapter 21. The Lymphatic and Immune System
        • 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
        • 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
        • 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
        • 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
        • 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens
        • 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
        • 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology
    • Unit 5. Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
      • Chapter 22. The Respiratory System
        • 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
        • 22.2 The Lungs
        • 22.3 The Process of Breathing
        • 22.4 Gas Exchange
        • 22.5 Transport of Gases
        • 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions
        • 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
      • Chapter 23. The Digestive System 
        • 23.1 Overview of the Digestive System
        • 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation
        • 23.3 The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
        • 23.4 The Stomach
        • 23.5 The Small and Large Intestines
        • 23.6 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
        • 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
      • Chapter 24. Metabolism and Nutrition
        • 24.1 Overview of Metabolic Reactions
        • 24.2 Carbohydrate Metabolism
        • 24.3 Lipid Metabolism
        • 24.4 Protein Metabolism
        • 24.5 Metabolic States of the Body
        • 24.6 Energy and Heat Balance
        • 24.7 Nutrition and Diet
      • Chapter 25. The Urinary System
        • 25.1 Physical Characteristics of Urine
        • 25.2 Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
        • 25.3 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
        • 25.4 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
        • 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation
        • 25.6 Tubular Reabsorption
        • 25.7 Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
        • 25.8 Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
        • 25.9 Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
        • 25.10 The Urinary System and Homeostasis
      • Chapter 26. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
        • 26.1 Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
        • 26.2 Water Balance
        • 26.3 Electrolyte Balance
        • 26.4 Acid-Base Balance
        • 26.5 Disorders of Acid-Base Balance
    • Unit 6. Human Development and Continuity of Life
      • Chapter 27. The Reproductive System
        • 27.1 Anatomy and Physiology of the Testicular Reproductive System
        • 27.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Ovarian Reproductive System
        • 27.3 Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
      • Chapter 28. Development and Inheritance
        • 28.1 Fertilization
        • 28.2 Embryonic Development
        • 28.3 Fetal Development
        • 28.4 Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
        • 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
        • 28.6 Lactation
        • 28.7 Patterns of Inheritance
    • References
    • Index

    Ancillary Material

    • OpenStax
    • OpenStax
    • OpenStax
    • About the Book

      Anatomy and Physiology 2e is developed to meet the scope and sequence for a two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body systems. The revision focuses on inclusive and equitable instruction and includes new student support. Illustrations have been extensively revised to be clearer and more inclusive. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology 2e also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams. Please learn more about the changes by previewing the preface.

      About the Contributors


      J. Gordon Betts, Tyler Junior College

      Kelly A. Young, California State University, Long Beach

      James A. Wise, Hampton University

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