# Mathematics for Elementary Teachers

Michelle Manes, Honolulu, HI

Pub Date: 2017

ISBN 13:

Publisher: Independent

## Conditions of Use

Attribution-ShareAlike

CC BY-SA

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## Table of Contents

I. Problem Solving

- Introduction
- Problem or Exercise?
- Problem Solving Strategies
- Beware of Patterns!
- Problem Bank
- Careful Use of Language in Mathematics
- Explaning Your Work
- The Last Step

II. Place Value

- Dots and Boxes
- Other Rules
- Binary Numbers
- Other Bases
- Number Systems
- Even Numbers
- Problem Bank
- Exploration

III. Number and Operations

- Introduction
- Addition: Dots and Boxes
- Subtration: Dots and Boxes
- Multiplication: Dots and Boxes
- Division: Dots and Boxes
- Number Line Model
- Area Model for Multiplication
- Properties of Operations
- Division Explorations
- Problem Bank

IV. Fractions

- Introduction
- What is a Fraction?
- The Key Fraction Rule
- Adding and Subtracting Fractions
- What is a Fraction? Revisited
- Multiplying Fractions
- Dividing Fractions: Meaning
- Dividing Fractions: Invert and Multiply
- Dividing Fractions: Problems
- Fractions involving zero
- Problem Bank
- Egyptian Fractions
- Algebra Connections
- What is a Fraction? Part 3

V. Patterns and Algebraic Thinking

- Introduction
- Borders on a Square
- Careful Use of Language in Mathematics: =
- Growing Patterns
- Matching Game
- Structural and Procedural Algebra
- Problem Bank

VI. Place Value and Decimals

- Review of Dots & Boxes Model
- Decimals
- x-mals
- Division and Decimals
- More x -mals
- Terminating or Repeating?
- Matching Game
- Operations on Decimals
- Orders of Magnitude
- Problem Bank

VII. Geometry

- Introduction
- Tangrams
- Triangles and Quadrilaterals
- Polygons
- Platonic Solids
- Painted Cubes
- Symmetry
- Geometry in Art and Science
- Problem Bank

VIII. Voyaging on Hokule?a

- Introduction
- Hokule?a
- Worldwide Voyage
- Navigation

## About the Book

This book will help you to understand elementary mathematics more deeply, gain facility with creating and using mathematical notation, develop a habit of looking for reasons and creating mathematical explanations, and become more comfortable exploring unfamiliar mathematical situations.

The primary goal of this book is to help you learn to think like a mathematician in some very specific ways. You will:

• Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. You will develop and demonstrate this skill by working on difficult problems, making incremental progress, and revising solutions to problems as you learn more.

• Reason abstractly and quantitatively. You will demonstrate this skill by learning to represent situations using mathematical notation (abstraction) as well as creating and testing examples (making situations more concrete).

• Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. You will be expected to create both written and verbal explanations for your solutions to problems. The most important questions in this class are “Why?” and “How do you know you’re right?” Practice asking these questions of yourself, of your professor, and of your fellow students.

• Model with mathematics. You will demonstrate this skill by inventing mathematical notation and drawings to represent physical situations and solve problems.

• Use appropriate tools strategically. You will be expected to use computers, calculators, measuring devices, and other mathematical tools when they are helpful.

• Attend to precision. You will write and express mathematical ideas clearly, using mathematical terms properly, providing clear definitions and descriptions of your ideas, and distinguishing between similar ideas (for example “factor” versus “multiple”.)

• Look for and make use of mathematical structure. You will find, describe, and most importantly explain patterns that come up in various situations including problems, tables of numbers, and algebraic expressions.

• Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. You will demonstrate this skill by recognizing (and expressing) when calculations or ideas are repeated, and how that can be used to draw mathematical conclusions (for example why a decimal must repeat) or develop shortcuts to calculations.

Throughout the book, you will learn how to learn mathematics on you own by reading, working on problems, and making sense of new ideas on your own and in collaboration with other students in the class.

## About the Contributors

### Author(s)

**Michelle Manes, **Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, University of Hawaii