Anatomy and Physiology
Multiple Authors, Openstax College
Pub Date: 2013
ISBN 13: 978-1-9381681-3-0
Conditions of Use
The text covers the main systems, with a focus on defining terms and describing and illustrating anatomy. Physiology is provided, but in less detail. read more
The text covers the main systems, with a focus on defining terms and describing and illustrating anatomy. Physiology is provided, but in less detail. Overall, I believe this text is well-suited to provide students with an introduction to anatomy and physiology suitable to a year 1 module within a Higher Education programme. Of particular use to health care professionals was the inclusion of pathophysiology and occasional discussion of relevant conditions and treatments. For example, within the cardiovascular system section description of CPR and cardiac tamponade was included, helping students to begin applying their knowledge to professional practice.
Although I have not read every single page of the text, the vast majority of the text appears to be relevant and accurate. Language appears objective and professional, and there is a focus on promoting the importance of anatomy and physiology to health care professionals, which is a significant strength for use of the book within a healthcare programme.
As previously stated, the book presents content relevant to the subjects covered. The text is relatively recent and all content reviewed appears to be up-to-date. Continuation of achieving this is made easily achievable by the online method of delivery. Videos and images have also largely been used effectively to support and break-up sections of text.
The text is written clearly and concisely, with sections being easy to read to understand. The text is clearly structured and body systems have grouped logically. Anatomical and physiological terminology is highlighted and defined sufficiently.
Throughout the text, language is consistently professional and academic. It is easy to understand for the reader and the formatting and structure is maintained throughout. This helps enable the reader to become familiar with the focus and direction of the text.
The text has been structured well into logical sections, based on function. This helps the reader combine and relate knowledge of separate systems to gain an understanding of how the body functions as a whole. Within each section, learning outcomes have been well-utilised to provide focus and direction.
The formatting of the structure of each section is maintained throughout, helping to provide consistency for the reader. I like how the body systems have been grouped to structure the text as it enables the reader to consider how systems work together to provide a homeostasis.
The text is easy to navigate and clear, effective illustrations are included to support descriptions and break-up large sections of text. Video links have been included to provide an additional learning platform, all of which have loaded successfully and quickly during the review.
No grammatical errors were noted during the review. Language is consistently professional and academic. it is also clear and easy to understand, helping to prevent a potential barrier to learning.
The text includes information and figure relating to a range of ages, races and genders. It is particularly useful for health care students as it also occasionally considers how theory relates to their practice.
Overall, I am impressed with the standard of this text and feel it is well-suited to introductory Anatomy and Physiology modules completed within the first year of Higher Education study within healthcare programmes. The text is structured logically, helping enable the reader to combine their understanding of separate systems to create an understanding of how the human body functions as a whole. The content focuses on anatomy more than physiology, but is adequate for an introductory module.
The comprehensiveness of this work is comparable to other anatomy and physiology texts that are geared toward undergraduate coursework. The table of read more
The comprehensiveness of this work is comparable to other anatomy and physiology texts that are geared toward undergraduate coursework. The table of contents is effective and provides a nice linked design to the various sections within the work. In addition, there is a nice glossary with listed terms appearing at the end of each chapter. The text offers a good overview of each system with the basics of anatomy and physiology covered. There is also a review section with questions at the end of each chapter that offers questions for the students to test their comprehension. This is most appropriate for introductory courses, as it lacks some of the detail you may find in more advanced texts.
The text appeared to be unbiased and fairly balanced with both anatomy and physiology. I did not notice any issues with accuracy, and there were few grammatical and editing errors. Some chapters, such as the skeletal system, are more geared toward the anatomy, but this is consistent with other publisher's books. If a more in-depth discussion of the physiology is warranted, then a separate text or resource may be needed.
The content appears to be up-to-date. The chapters contain clinical sections that connect the concepts to current medical technology, procedures, and pathologies. There are in-text links that tie the chapter content to outside websites that offer additional resources, which is a nice way to supplement the chapter. In addition, there is a brief section devoted to development within many chapters. Chapters are often not as detailed as comparable standard format texts, but are still appropriate for the introductory student. I believe that this text is relevant and has good short-term longevity, though medical advances and website changes will require future editing.
The text reads easily and uses clear and concise language. Complex terminology is explained coherently and concepts are often paired with a relevant image. The images themselves are effective, but not quite as detailed and/or useful as the standard format texts that I have encountered.
The structure of the text appears consistent and uniform from chapter to chapter, which helps with overall clarity and guidance for the reader.
The text's modularity is good and it is easy to navigate the subsections of each chapter. This is another point of commonality between this text and standard format texts. Subheadings are clear and easy for the reader to navigate.
The organization of the text is similar to other textbooks and it proceeds in a logical fashion from the chemical and cellular level to the major systems of the body. The structure of each chapter is also similar, as the text is punctuated by clinical anecdotes and descriptions where appropriate and many conclude with developmental aspects of growth and formation of the system. The flow of each chapter is also logical and readable.
The interface of the book was good overall. The text often links to outside resources and videos that help the reader visualize and understand important concepts. I did notice that some of the links were outdated, or no longer linked to the stated content. An example is the section on the microanatomy of bone. It links back to an Openstax page that no longer contains the video. Many of the links to university and college sites were excellent and provided nice views of slides, videos, etc.
The text had few grammatical errors and they were fairly easy to overlook and didn't hinder the readability of the chapter.
The text appears culturally relevant and I did not come across any sections that were offensive or insensitive.
Overall this is a nice introductory text that covers the basics of anatomy and physiology with clarity. The in-text links also allow the instructor to pull additional resources to supplement the information found in each chapter. The images are the major drawback, as they are often not as clear and detailed as comparable textbooks, but the price could easily outweigh any reservations on the part of an instructor looking to adopt this text.
I have used part of chapters of this book for an introduction course. For my purpose, it is very comprehensive. Due to time limitation, I have to read more
I have used part of chapters of this book for an introduction course. For my purpose, it is very comprehensive. Due to time limitation, I have to skip some sections. As an electronics book, it is easy to identify the content. It seems this is not a book for an introduction course, especially for engineering students. The instructor has to tailor it.
Some time, I have to search around to confirm if the definition is right, especially there are many other books with different statements. But overall, it is pretty accurate. But for figures, I usually do not use those with the book, since better ones could be found on Web. One of the drawback is there is no animation.
One big advantage of open book is that the book could be updated very quickly. If there is any obsolete knowledge, the book should be open for updating by anyone after approval. For this book, I did not see this advantage
4. Overall the content is easily understood, but some time the text is very tedious, which could be described easily with an animation.
Overall consistent throughout the text
I do not think the book has any advantages over traditional books on modularity, although it can be done very efficiently through an E book. The content could be classified for courses at different levels. An instructor could pick modules based on their purposes, and then distribute to students.
The book is presented in a logical way, but not sure if that is important. If the book is based on modular design. The structure should be flexible.
The interface is straightforward.
Did not notice that.
We do see naked people over there. For this case, a few figures could be provided based on different cultures.
This is a good start point for freeing students from expensive traditional books and this is the trend to go. We really appreciate this. Future improvements could focus on flexibility and better presentation, such as animation. In addition, on-line question banks should be provided to the instructor.
This book is comprehensive, covered with all organ systems and major topics. It also includes some side topics in many chapters. Additionally, read more
This book is comprehensive, covered with all organ systems and major topics. It also includes some side topics in many chapters. Additionally, inclusion of chapters of neurological exam and fetal development is unique and impressive. The materials included could be used to teach lower college-level human anatomy and physiology courses. Although it covers many clinical-related information, not much mechanistic science at cellular or molecular levels is included in some of chapters. One example is about hemoglobin dissociation curve shift. The effects of cellular metabolite BPG is not mentioned, and comparison between myoglobin and hemoglobin is not discussed. Another example is action potential initiation is covered but its propagation is not discussed, and pacemaker potential is not covered. In other chapters, such as the immune system, cellular and molecular mechanisms are covered. The text also provides extra materials with interactive link, which helps to understand more complicated topics that require higher order thinking. Although most of the contents from the link are clinically related, and do not seem relevant to the materials present in the written text. Additionally, this book also includes a section of career connections that introduce various career opportunities. These extra materials provide students with connection between physiological concepts and everyday life.
In general, most of the contents is accurate. Most figures and diagrams are labeled correctly. Some inaccurate or confusing points exist, however. For example: figures 12.18 and 12.19 illustrate ligand-gated channels, indicated that different types of ions pass the same membrane protein, which is inaccurate and could be misleading. The publisher website has an online errata list for reporting inaccuracy, thus the accuracy will be improved overtime.
The information is mostly up-to-date and consistent with the mainstream opinions in the fields. This book also includes information that is relevant to everyday life, clinical application, and health professional careers, which is discussed through "Everyday Connection", interactive linked materials and critical thinking questions. In contrast, research methods and discoveries are not as much as emphasized. It is relatively easy to implement new discoveries using links. The cutting-edge research related information is also relevant to many students’ careers. The online version is suitable for frequent updating and revising, and thus should last long.
In general, the materials are written in a clear manner, which makes it easy to read. Many concepts are explained in a simplified manner without going to depth, thus this text could be used for test review as well. The glossary and index are very good. Some terminology are not specified or misused, and some sentences (for example, body temperature regulation part) are misleading.
Overall format and most structures are labeled consistently, at least within the same unit and chapter. Writing style varies since the textbook is written by multiple authors. Some of the same terminology are discussed using multiple different names, and some of the same structures are pictured using different colors. Such inconsistencies mostly is minor, but could be distracting.
The online version of the textbook has modularity in units and chapters, but pdf version is download as one piece. It would be nice to offer an option for sectional downloading. The sequence of the chapters are in a similar order as most other anatomy and physiology textbooks. It should not be hard for instructors to adapt this textbook and use sections of the book.
Units and chapters are organized well. The book start with general and fundamental knowledge, followed by individual systems, similar as most physiology textbooks. Each chapter begins with objectives, key terms, and glossary, flow to key points, review questions, and then to critical thinking questions and link questions, requiring increasing depth of understanding. The glossaries included within each section can be identified when the term is searched. Figures, tables and videos are also well-organized. Overall, materials is organized in a progressive manner.
The interface is clear and its layout is organized well. The interactive links provide additional information and questions, which is a plus. I prefer to use a printout hardcopy, so that I can refer to the diagrams and text at same time without scrolling back and forth, and when there is no or bad internet connection. The pdf version does not have page numbers, which makes it hard to find relevant materials listed in the table of contents and index. Figures and tables are not referred well in the text. On some pages of the printed copy, however, some of images and text are not on the same page, whereas on other pages there is a chunk of blank space.
This book contains a few minor grammatical errors. Some sentences are not concise and could be confusing, but wouldn’t mislead or interfere with learning.
The topics of anatomy and physiology would apply to many species, including humans. It is not uncommon that cultural and ethnic information is missing in a textbook at this level. This book is culturally sensitive. Some diseases that affect certain gender, ages, races or ethnicities are discussed, and some images and drawings of people of different races are included. Students and instructors especially in health professions would appreciate these examples that include a diversity of gender, racial and ethnic background.
This textbook include topics from both anatomy and physiology. Overall it is a great teaching and learning resource. Most departments and institutions teach these two subject separately, so that they would only use part of this book wherever materials are appropriate. This book simplifies some difficult concepts and makes them easier to understand, but sometimes this text lacks depth and it is not as thorough as some other textbooks. Additionally, this textbook is better be used for introductory physiology undergraduate courses or for applied science courses, but not for major biology courses, as it does not include much research contents. Furthermore, inclusion of a question bank would be ideal for instructors.
I am comparing this open source textbook to another widely used, commercially available text. Compared to that, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology is read more
I am comparing this open source textbook to another widely used, commercially available text. Compared to that, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology is not quite as comprehensive. All major subject areas are covered (i.e. cells, bones, muscles, nervous system, etc.), but molecular details of many physiological processes are left out or poorly covered. There is more molecular & mechanistic detail in some chapters rather than others (or on some topics rather than others), perhaps reflecting the multiple authors of this book. All necessary broad A&P topics are covered though.
The content of this text is by and large accurate. Again, I'm comparing it to a widely used text from a highly reputable publisher. Yes, I have found a few errors in the OpenStax text. But I have also found similar numbers and types of errors in the commercially available text. I do not find the OpenStax text biased in any way that I have noticed.
I find the OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology text to have appropriate relevance and longevity. It is not written in such a way that would require major edits to update it. The text relates well to the current generation of users by providing lots of embedded links. However, not all of these links are still working. Perhaps removing web links in a future edition would increase longevity of the text. Textbox insets could easily be used to highlight applied concepts rather than web links.
Compared to the other commercially available text I have used, OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology is more accessible to my students (community college) because of its clarity. The book does not overuse jargon at all. My students find this to be very helpful and find the prose to be easy to read and comprehend.
I have not noted any problems with this text book's consistency.
This textbook's modularity is fine. The text is easily divided into units and chapters that can be grouped together appropriately for effective instruction and testing. The text is broken down with enough subheadings to give students breaks between topics while reading so the students do not get bogged down by the bulk and amount of material presented.
The organization and flow of this text is one of my complaints about it. Several of my colleagues have the same complaint. The other commercially available text that I have used for Anatomy and Physiology was organized better. For the overall text, I don't have a problem with the organization of the units/chapters, except for Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control. Chapter 12-15 could be organized better in my opinion. Chapter 12 describes nervous tissue, Chapter 13 describes the anatomy of the nervous system, Chapter 14 describes the somatic nervous system, and Chapter 15 describes the autonomic nervous system. To me, this organization just doesn't make sense and confuses students. I have chosen to teach this material as "topics" rather than chapters, and have organized the information into (1) nervous tissue & physiology, (2) the brain, and (3) the spinal cord. I think it is much more effective to structure the material this way for my students. On a separate note, I also find problems with the organization of material within each chapter in this textbook. The flow of information is often off and better reorganized and presented in a different way.
As previously mentioned, the text contains old web links that are no longer active. I have not noted any distortion of images on different devices, but I have noted that images are not available in high enough resolution for adding edits or enlarging in PowerPoint.
I have noted the occasional grammatical error, but nothing more than any other published text.
I did not find any issues with this text book's cultural relevance, although to be honest, I was not reading it with a keen eye for cultural relevance but more for course content.
There is another major issue that I had with this text that was not previously covered in this review form: the text book's images (both the amount of images and their quality). Compared with the other commercially available text I have used, the images in OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology are not adequate for effective instruction. First, there are simply not enough images to adequately convey difficult topics to students. For every one image in OpenStax A&P, I feel like we need about 5 more (at least). Second, the quality of the images that are available is lacking. Many are not detailed enough to provide students with adequate information for studying. Also, for instructional purposes, the images are not of high enough resolution for optimal use within PowerPoint.
This text is very comprehensive including all the traditional chapters in systems' approach of anatomy and physiology instruction with each chapter read more
This text is very comprehensive including all the traditional chapters in systems' approach of anatomy and physiology instruction with each chapter clearly divided into cohesive topics that coherently describe the structural components and characteristics of each body system's organs followed by the function/physiological process/es of each organ within the system. The Table of context/index is clear and effective and so is the glossary!
I have reviewed each chapter superficially but specifically reviewed carefully Chapter 21: The Lymphatic and immune System as immunological process/innate and adaptive responses are not easy for sophomore level students and many textbooks oversimplify the process of T cell activation, etc making the explanations so simplistic that they are borderline innacurate. I felt the explanation of a T cell receptor and MHC complexes was great and accurate. There is not enough genetic explanation on how we end up with millions of specific TCR bearing cells but that is not the scope of a sophomore level anatomy and physiology course. Overall, it was very accurate and with enough detail.
I believe the chapters are up to date for the most part, as long as there is a way to ensure periodic updates, it should not be too difficult to do them.
This book is written with great clarity, in chapter 21 immunological jargon is critical to understand the interplay and cross talk of different innate and specific/adaptive cell types. I felt it was accessible to students at this level.
Terminology and structure/framework is very consistent which was great to see as I imagined it can be challenging in an OER>
This book is very much like a non OER when it comes to modularity, its index lends itself to those modules and subtopics that make reading transitions between related topics easy to the reader.
Again its organization/flow is typical of traditional anatomy and physiology textbook at the 2000 level.
I surfed through the whole interface and did not find it difficult to load (specially images or figures). This was great!
I did found one grammatical errors in chapter 21 but that was it.
I would say with confidence that is not insensitive or offensive culturally in any way. Not sure if it uses examples across races/ethnicities but certainly it is not offensive.
I was pleasantly surprised with the accuracy of the chapter dealing with Immunology as it is particular confusing for students at the level. In addition, it is easy and clear to read and navigation was not slow (online version) or frustrating in any way. I would be willing to try it in my course.
This text is quite comprehensive, with detailed subject matter on several levels, including various formats for student use and the ability for read more
This text is quite comprehensive, with detailed subject matter on several levels, including various formats for student use and the ability for instructors to customize to their level of instruction. The index does a good job of presenting the Unit topic with subsequent Chapters, each color coded to assist in evaluating content quickly. Chapters begin with a brief list of expectations then provide opportunities not only of text but support with illustrations, examples and interactive links. At the end of each unit is a glossary of Key Terms relating to that unit, a Chapter Review, Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions, all providing comprehensive review options. Having the glossary connected to the unit enables easy reference and to refresh memory of content. The Chapter Review is detailed enough to support responses to the question section that follows. In addition, answers are provided in the back of the book, making it possible, but not too convenient, to check responses.
There were no inaccuracies noted, nor were there any typographical errors. Information provided seemed factual without personal opinions. (However, I did not read every word in the book!)
Content seems up-to-date and relevant to today and the needs of the medical field at this point. The nice attribute of Open STAX is that the instructor can add and delete content as relevance changes and other areas come to the forefront. It should not be difficult to change various inserts, such as the Career Connection and the Interactive Links, as these and others are highlighted and boxed within the full text.
This book is very detailed and does use terminology that may be difficult for some to comprehend, depending on level of exposure and intended use. The explanations are detailed, appear accurate and provide depth to the subject presented. Much of the text is backed up with illustrations, examples or interactive links. The vocabulary is advanced in some areas presuming previous knowledge in the sciences (i.e. chemistry, biology).
The book is well presented from the Preface explaining the open learning concept through the index that provides ease in finding information with an easy to follow outline. Each chapter follows the outline and includes sections with repetitive content and summary sections. Very well organized and easy to follow.
Unit titles are divided by body system action (i.e. Support and Movement) rather than system name (skeletal), making introduction more well rounded and inclusive. In addition, disease examples are included as part of the system chapter, rather than being grouped as afterthoughts separate from function. Interactive links are spread through each unit providing an alternative method of exploration and learning. Very well organized and thought out information per section with good presentation flow. While providing detailed information on a topic the reader is also provided options for expanded learning opportunities. Each of the sections provided could easily be updated, expanded, deleted or moved as the instructor customizes their class.
Very well organized with good flow for instructor and student. Demonstrates consistency and is easy to follow.
There were no issues noted with interface as all illustrations and information provided came across clearly without distortion or confusion.
No grammatical errors were noted in review of this text.
There are no inappropriate references to culturally sensitive issues noted in the text. The Interactive Links and Career Connections were well presented and relevant.
While this book was very detailed with a more advanced vocabulary than beginning medical classes might be used to, it was well organized, well written, and offered various options for learning. With the ability for instructors to customize presentation this all provides a good option for a variety of class levels.
This textbook covers all main areas of physiology in a suitable manner. The outline is very good and the overall organization of the different units read more
This textbook covers all main areas of physiology in a suitable manner. The outline is very good and the overall organization of the different units is well structured and makes sense. The table of contents and glossary are appropriate, and the obvious advantage of using the “find” function online is a great.
The text in this ebook is unbiased and accurate. The figures are appropriate and very helpful.
The text is up to date and relevant. For example, the Bisphenol A section in “Everyday Connection”, Chapter 7 Endocrine system is timely and well-written. However, the recent important role of the bone hormone osteocalcin in pancreas and testis physiology could and should be included, but will be a relatively straightforward update.
The text is well written, without an excess of jargon. The terminology is clear and appropriate.
This textbook is very consistent in overall outline, structure, terminology, and has a very appropriate and solid flow of topics in physiology.
The text is divided in 6 units, and each unit containing between 2 and 7 chapters. The units are logical and well-suited for this textbook. The chapters each start with clearly stated learning objectives, and are broken down in easy to read sections. Finally, chapters contain special emphasis sections called “Homeostatic Imbalances”, “Disorders”, “Diseases”, “Aging”, “Career Connections”, “Everyday Connections”, and “Interactive Links”. Especially the “Interactive Links” are extremely useful and a tremendous asset to this textbook.
This textbook is very well organized and as indicated above the different units, chapters, and sections within chapters are presented in a logical fashion. The chapter review and review questions at the end of each chapter are very good and useful.
This online textbook is easy to navigate through and the interactive links work well. The images are appropriate and of good quality.
The grammar in this textbook is good, and the text is easy to read. No errors were apparent.
The text uses appropriate examples without any bias to races, ethnicities and backgrounds, and is not culturally insensitive or offensive.
This is a great online Anatomy & Physiology textbook with broad coverage, and the interactive links add a tremendous amount resource and information. The featured text included in the emphasis sections “Homeostatic Imbalances”, “Disorders”, “Diseases”, “Aging”, “Career Connections”, and “Everyday Connections” are a great addition and will be of interest to students.
This textbook is divided into six units and 28 chapters. All material reasonable for a college-level human anatomy and physiology textbook is covered read more
This textbook is divided into six units and 28 chapters. All material reasonable for a college-level human anatomy and physiology textbook is covered in an progressive and well-organized manner. Each chapter begins with a list of objectives, and the chapter content does an excellent job at covering the material verbally and with appropriate video-clips, and sometimes on-line exercises. Each chapter ends with a thorough glossary of terms and then sets of self-testing questions, from multiple choice to critical-thinking (with answers at the end of the textbook) and Interactive Link Questions. The Index at the end of the textbook also is thorough, and the online references relating to material in each chapter also are helpful.
As with almost any work, there were phrasings that could be misinterpreted, and errors I noticed in text and in images: Chapter 3, page 97 states that smooth ER "regulates the concentration of cellular Ca++, a function extremely important in cells of the nervous system". I believe this is misleading. Neuron terminals, where the neurotransmitter is released, do not store calcium (it enters from the ECF through channels). It may be better to use the storage of calcium in the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum in skeletal and cardia muscle cells/fibers as an example. Chapter 4, Fig 4.8 on pg. 142 does not list Epidermis as a stratified squamous epithelium. On page 152, the Pubic Symphysis is not listed as a location of fibrocartilage. Fig 5.16b has a significant error. It shows "blue" blood flowing into "red" blood. This is backwards. "Red" oxygenated systemic blood flows from arteries and arterioles to capillaries, and then the "blue" deoxygenated blood flows into and through the veins. Chapter 6. On page 206, it is stated that bones store "potassium". Shouldn't that be "phosphorous". Chapter 12. Why color Schwann cells red in Fig. 12.12 and then blue in Fig. 12.13. Students benefit from consistency and some may wonder if there are different Schwann cells doing the same thing. Fig. 12.14 shows ambient temperature "signals" (axons) ascending in the ipsilateral spinal cord. This is a significant mistake; The axons ascend in the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Fi. 12.18 shows an acetylcholine (ACh) channel that is permeable to calcium. I am only aware of ACh channels being permeable to sodium and potassium, so please check this. Fi. 12.20 shows the Inactivation gate of the voltage-gated channel "plugging" the pore "at rest". This is incorrect. The Inactivation gate plugs the pore after substantial depolarization (sodium entering through the Activation gate). This is actually stated correctly on page 497. Chapter 13. The text on page 525 and Fig. 13.7 list only four cerebral lobes. There are five. The fifth is the Insula and needs to be added. Chapter 17. Images of the Pancreas in Figures 17.18 and 17.19 show the hormones entering the Splenic artery. I believe they enter the Splenic vein. The images also have arrows in the artery pointing towards the Aorta, which is wrong. If you leave the artery in the images, the blood flows away from the Aorta. Chapter 19. Fig. 19.13 shows three papillary muscles in the Right Ventricle. The Bicuspid valve has two cusps and there are only two papillary muscles. Fig. 19.20 shows that potassium channels open at +15 mV, whence calcium channels close (which I suspect is correct). The text on page 809 states that this occurs at +5 mV. Please research and correct whichever one is wrong. Chapter 21. Figures 21.2 and 21.7 shows the Adenoid (pharyngeal tonsil) out of place. It is shown off to the side, but it is closer to/at the midline. Also, I believe it is confusing to students to identify the adenoid and then a tonsil inferior to it in Fig. 21.7. Students may conclude that the adenoid is something else, not just another name for a tonsil. Chapter 22. There is a significant error in the text of the "Disorders of the ...: RSD" box on page 1020. The end of the 1st paragraph states: "Blood oxygen levels are low, whereas blood carbon dioxide levels and pH are high". When carbon dioxide levels are high, pH is low (more hydrogen ions, and thus, acidic). Chapter 27. In the "Everyday Connection" on page 1232, it is stated that "Each of our cells contain approximately 1700 mitochondria". This statement is inconsistent with the evidence that some cells (maybe osteocytes) can function with a few hundred mitochondria, but other cells (striated muscle and neurons) need thousands. Chapter 28. At the very end of the text, Turner Syndrome is mentioned as a (female) chromosomal disorder. Why isn't Klinefelter Syndrome, a "male" disorder, which may affect as many as one of every five hundred males, not mentioned?
I make every attempt to keep up with any new findings in the area of human biology. I believe that this text is written to align with long-standing understanding of human anatomy and physiology, while incorporating new findings throughout. I suspect that being an online text, updates can be made periodically.
As a textbook, I found the prose easy to read, with a style that draws the reader/student in. Technical phraseology was minimized, and when used, very good "laymen" explanations were supplied.
Every chapter was organized in a consistent manner, which should help students learn where to quickly find what thy are seeking in any chapter. The overall framework throughout the text was terrific, with readable text, great tables and figures, and quick access to very good online topics relevant to the material.
Dividing the content into six units is appropriate for how to study the human body. Each of the 28 chapters are well organized into sections, with each section starting with a set of goals. The text, figures, tables and links are well-placed within the sections. The ends of the chapters with a glossary and question-sets also are consistent and appropriate.
I believe I addressed this earlier (like question 6). The topics are most-definitely presented in a logical fashion and are written and depicted in a manner that should help almost any student learn the subject.
Except for errors I noticed in a few images/figures, there were no interface issues that I had any issue with. Considering the technology is relatively new to my academic tenure, that is significant. I cannot image that most younger students would have any problem interfacing with this textbook.
I did not detect any grammatical errors.
The material in this textbook describes humans, from human cells to tissues, organs, systems and development. I did not see any example where the text or images were culturally insensitive or where I think anyone would find the material offensive.
I applaud those with the vision to create an excellent free online textbook for students throughout the world who want to (or need to) learn about human biology, and for anyone else who is curious about how we are put together and function. Thank you!
The text is quite comprehensive - all major topics are covered. A number of notable and appropriate side topics of interest are included in most read more
The text is quite comprehensive - all major topics are covered. A number of notable and appropriate side topics of interest are included in most chapters. The glossary and index are very good. It would help if the detailed list of topics in each chapter (from the Table of Contents) was repeated at the beginning of each chapter. In addition to traditional chapter topics, there is a unique chapter called "The Neurological Exam" that I believe will be both very instructive (applying information from other chapters) and very engaging.
The book is generally quite accurate and current - this is no trivial accomplishment for a field this complicated. The book is neutral on most controversial topics presented, with a tendency to tilt toward acceptance of mainstream views (this is not at all unusual). Generally science textbooks shy away from (or just omit) controversial topics, but authors might do better if they presented controversies as such, and let readers decide.
The book is up-to-date, and will provide a satisfactory introduction to A&P for a number of years to come. It is worth noting that the field of A&P is growing in sophistication - especially in the physiology area. But even in anatomy new discoveries are made from time to time (for example - not found in this book is the "discovery" of the clitoris - which was really the discovery in 2009 that the clitoris is a much larger and more important organ than previously thought).
The book is generally well written, in clear and simple language. Technical terms are very numerous (to be expected in an A&P text) but well explained. A few chapters seem a bit dry compared to the others.
The various chapters are well organized, with artwork, sidebars, and end of chapter questions throughout the book. The art work is really quite good - and pretty consistent through the various chapters - and again this is very significant given how big of an undertaking it is to make an A&P textbook.
The book could be better in this area. While it IS modular, up to a point, the total amount of material presented almost begs for more and smaller sections. Perhaps more graphic headings within the chapters would help, or at least a schematic/graphic outline of the chapter after the chapter introduction. Each chapter can stand well on it's own, but I think it would be challenging to customize reading assignments for my own needs.
The chapters are arranged in the traditional pattern for this type of textbook, and the order of topics within chapters follows a familiar pattern as well. Most of the text of a few chapters is mostly just straight text, without much formatting, and this can be a challenge to read and keep track of where you are.
The book navigates well, and all the images appear to be free of technical issues. Obviously the ability to link from the index to specific topics is nice. Also the Interactive Links (a type of sidebar) are well integrated into the written text. The "Interactive Link Questions" are a wonderful addition to the set of questions at the end of many of the chapters.
There are only a few minor grammatical errors. However, in a number of cases sentences are rather long and unwieldy, making it more challenging for students to easily "read for understanding". Today's students - including many of the better ones - would not have been considered strong readers a couple of decades ago.
Although many teachers might think that a science textbook does not need to worry about "cultural relevance", I am not one of them. Since this is really a human anatomy and physiology textbook, and most students taking the course are going to work in healthcare (in a multiracial, multicultural country!) more highlighting of human variability is warranted. I think the book would be stronger if it included aspects of health care discrepancies based on age, race, gender, etc. One example - a wonderful sidebar they might add would be the difference in heart attack symptoms in men and women - and how this was discovered. It is history, biology, and cultural relevance - in a topic that is likely to be very engaging.
I have been teaching Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) for about 15 years, and have reviewed a number of major textbooks. Due to the competition between major texts in this field, many A&P texts have fairly complex and sophisticated layouts of text and Figures. My review comments are in comparison to these textbooks. While it may seem that commercial textbooks are over-formatted, I believe the complexity of the subject (A&P) supports the need/desire for more headings, more bold fonts for key terms, footnotes and/or sidebars, etc. Most A&P students I have met (at multiple institutions) are very busy both with other courses and with jobs, so a more user-friendly textbook might be considered more of a necessity than a luxury. Having stated all that, this is a very good textbook that I would recommend to people. A lot of effort has been well spent making this book a very useful resource for Anatomy and Physiology students.
The textbook is extremely comprehensive for an introductory human anatomy and physiology two course sequence. read more
The textbook is extremely comprehensive for an introductory human anatomy and physiology two course sequence.
I found the book to be generally accurate. One concern that I found was that the Brachial Plexus is generally considered to be made of ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C5-T1, but the book presents it as beginning at C4. Of course, C4 contributes to the brachial plexus but is generally reported as C5-T1.
The content is up-to-date, and because it is an introductory textbook, it will not become obsolete quickly. The text is written and/or arranged in such a way that necessary updates will be relatively easy and straightforward to implement. I recommend that the textbook be updated every 3-5 years.
The textbook is clear and easy to read. Terminology is well described. It would benefit to include more images and diagrams. Perhaps also have an open-source human atlas. Atlases tend to be quite expensive.
The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework.
The textbook is very modular. It can be very easily used for a two-course sequence. Instructors can use chapters out of sequence to meet their course needs with a little thought upfront.
Generally, the book is well organized, easy to follow, and flows well.
The text is generally free of significant interface issues. Due to availability as a PDF, it can be easily read on a tablet, although I have not tried reading it on a tablet. Generally, it prints well. One problem with printing it is that in the middle of the chapter many a times half pages are left blank without any reason, which would result in waste of paper.
The book appears to be grammatically correct, although the sentence structure sometimes makes the content difficult to understand.
The text is not culturally insensitive. However, it does not use of examples that are inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds.
I teach courses in musculoskeletal anatomy and neuroscience courses in an Occupational Therapy Program. I would not recommend this book for these courses as they require more advanced textbooks. However, this book appears to be appropriate for Anatomy and Physiology I and II courses.
The text is acceptably comprehensive and covers the material in a clear and concise manner. I am looking at this from a clinical perspective and read more
The text is acceptably comprehensive and covers the material in a clear and concise manner. I am looking at this from a clinical perspective and using the text to review systems related to nursing process and procedures. This text meets my needs and is very easy to read and follow.
For my purposes the book is quite accurate and relative to clinical applications.
I found the content to be up-to-date. It appears to be written in a way that updates could be easily added should they be necessary.
The book is written in a very clear and concise manner, yet provides the accurate terms I would expect students to apply in the clinical setting.
It is evident that there are multiple authors who contributed to the book, however I do not feel this will distract the students too much.
The book is well organized in chapters and sub sections. The objectives are clear and the content of each chapter meets the stated objectives which is helpful to both students and instructors.
The flow of the text is logical and easy to follow. For my purposes of using the text to supplement as a review in the clinical setting I find the book to be exceptional.
I downloaded the text and found it easy to follow and use.
I found no grammatical errors.
I did not find the text to be culturally insensitive in anyway.
The text is comprehensive will well-balanced coverage of all organ systems. As with all texts, the authors had to make decisions to pare down the read more
The text is comprehensive will well-balanced coverage of all organ systems. As with all texts, the authors had to make decisions to pare down the content to make for a manageable text. A hard, but well-done task. The search bar and the list of pages it provides with the ability to link to the locations within the text, make it better than a traditional index. The glossaries are included within each section and will be identified when the term is searched. The book includes very little science behind the information provided in the text.
There are numerous small, perhaps very small, errors that may make the book unsatisfactory for the very detailed oriented instructor.
No concerns in this area. The examples provided are not time or situationally bound. The short modular design is well-suited for the contemporary learner and allows for quick revisions to the text.
The text is written in an easy-to-follow style that allows the student to focus on content. At times the terminology used seemed a bit too loose or sloppy. For example, the term bladder was used without specifying whether it was referring to a specific bladder as in the urinary bladder or the gall bladder.
The layout of the book and each section is very uniform and appealing to the reader.
For the most part, yes, the sections can be used independent of others. Yet, some of the pages got very long, particularly in Chapter 14 with only three sections covering the entire somatic nervous system. For a text book to provide a cohesive framework for learning sections and information should be cross referenced so that student learning can move to a higher level quickly. Focusing on a modular approach takes away from needing a text book at all and results in a collection of learning modules that are not tied together.
A very standard organizational plan was used. The modularity of each section distracted from a comprehensive flow.
Each section contained linked information and a question.
No errors found
The text lacked cultural references and thus cultural relevance. Ethnic differences should be discussed. At this level, health professions students need to appreciate that everyone is a bit different even at the molecular, cellular and tissue level.
Section 1.4 doesn’t provide a good differentiation between the function of tight junctions as opposed to adhesion junctions. Used the term bladder specifically without specifying gall bladder or urinary bladder. Doesn’t include perforating fibers (Sharpey’s fibers) of the bone. Some error is going on with the MC questions at the end of each section. All the choices are labeled, “b”, “d”, “f” and “h”. The correct answers are provided in the traditional “A”, “B”, “C” and “D” format and are accurate. Discussion on membranes, particularly serous membranes is weak and not as accurate as it should be. Metabolic Process Location interactive exercise – disagree with many of the answers. For example, the organ responsible for maintaining normal blood glucose levels was identified as the liver. Section 4.2: Cells of epithelia are closely connected and are not separated by intracellular material.
The text includes all of the subjects generally covered in a year-long lower division undergraduate A&P course. As when comparing any comparable read more
The text includes all of the subjects generally covered in a year-long lower division undergraduate A&P course. As when comparing any comparable texts, this one did not go into as much depth in some areas but went into more depth in others.
Apart from occasional mistakes the book was accurate
The content is up to date and its relevance is unlikely to change in the near future since it covers mostly basic scientific concepts.
The text is definitely not overly wordy which I can appreciate. However, for a student who is unfamiliar with these concepts, more and clearer description of concepts and definition of root words would be useful especially at the beginning. I also feel that a lack of visual representation of processes will make the prose more difficult to conceptualize for the majority of visual learners.
The text is mostly consistent conceptually and in its use of terminology within and between sections.
The textbook's modularity follows the same order as most of the other texts used in A&P courses targeted towards undergraduates going into nursing and allied health professions. As with any scientific text that builds upon concepts and definitions, this modularity is as adaptable as other texts of its kind.
The book follows a similar (and logical) organization to other textbooks of its kind.
The text's interface is clear and easily navigable.
The text contains few grammatical errors.
The text is not culturally insensitive. I think.
This book was comprehensive, covering the topics expected in a majors-level A&P book. It began with basic cell chemistry, progressed to tissues, and read more
This book was comprehensive, covering the topics expected in a majors-level A&P book. It began with basic cell chemistry, progressed to tissues, and then moved through system-by-system coverage of the body. The breakdown of topics was novel in some cases--for example putting reflexes under "somatic nerves" rather than spinal cord as in most books. Also, I enjoyed seeing special chapters on aging and human genetics. The glossary and index were complete and I didn't see any major omissions.
The content seemed accurate (I'm not an A&P scholar, so I can't judge every detail). I didn't see claring errors and noticed no bias. The only part someone could claim was a bias was the us of U.S. data (for example, to show the prevalence of different blood types). I'm not sure if this book will be used outside the U.S., but if so, that chart would seem out of place.
Content was up-to-date and make sense in flow and the way chapters were arranged. The chapter topics could easilly be changed or updated without affecting the rest of the text.
The text was clear and accessible. I enjoyed how some medical terms were quickly connected to "everyday" terms to provide additional relevance to students. At times, the writing seemed to change from "majors level" to "non-majors level" in terms of the words and phrasing. Also, the overall writing tone seemed to change at times between sections and chapters. Possibly this is due to having multiple authors creating this work.
As mentioned above, the text flow, tone, and phrasing changed several times in the text. This did affect consistency but unlikely to be noticed by a student over a whole year, just a reviewer reading the whole thing at one time. Additionally, the use of illustrations shows the same changes over the book--some chapters are only diagrams, some use photos, and some use slides. It would have been nicer if each chapter used the same types of images. Again, this may be due to authorship. I can't think of a pedagogical reason to do this. For specific examples, the Integumentary system does a fantastic job of matching simple illustrations with slide photos of the same structures. A student could use this text in lab or lecture and gets a "real life" view of the structures. In the chapter on bones, it's only diagrams; no pictures. Wouldn't a picture of a skull help a student match the diagram with the real thing?
I teach both the year-long "majors" A&P and the half-year "intro" A&P series. This book's modularity would make it possible for me to use sections for a 100-level course without having to tell students exact pages and sentences to skip to make the content reasonable. Likewise, I can see chapters and sections that can be rearranged in a different order for a class without affecting what's being taught. This contrasts with some texts that use an overarching story and by nature, can't be used in a different order that how written. This modularity makes the book easy to use in different courses, in different ways, for different reasons.
I liked how the book's topics were arranged. I prefer the system-by-system, superficial-to-deep approach. Although novel to me, I did like the way the nervous system was broken up beyond the usual CNS-PNS-ANS of most books. I could see this text's way of doing it easier for students to learn and easier for me to teach those difficult concepts.
I reviewed the .pdf version and was not aware of any interface problems specifically to tha format. A few things did catch my eye but they were more problems with a particular layout on a page rather than the text overall. For example, the chart for the hormones begins at the end of a page and continues on to the next page. There was room to put the whole thing on one page, so why not do that? Students would learn the chart much better if it were in one piece. Likewise, a few diagrams and pictures were on different pages than when referenced. Perhaps a little different editing would make the picture appear on the same page as it's discussion.
I didn't see any major grammatical errors.
I didn't see anything offensive. As stated before, this book references U.S. data so might be a problem in other countries. Also, disease listings tend to focus on typical U.S. problems and avoids some of the emergent, tropical disorders that might have relevance to non-European readers.
I was pleasantly surprised to find out that this book not only provides a comprehensive treatment of anatomy & physiology but also the fundamental read more
I was pleasantly surprised to find out that this book not only provides a comprehensive treatment of anatomy & physiology but also the fundamental biochemical concepts that underpin these topics. I was particularly pleased at the care taken to illustrate the figures relating to biochemistry.
I spent a good deal of time reviewing the chapters relating to fundamental chemistry and biochemistry and was particularly pleased to find that these chapters were not only deep as well as accurate, but also discussed the relevance of this information to careers my students may pursue.
The content of this text is highly relevant to the course I am teaching right now. The fundamentals of human biology do not change quickly, and the electronic nature of the resource would allow for completion of updates with relative ease.
The text is standard for a textbook, no surprises there, and there is adequate explanation of concepts and jargon. It would be good for the authors to explore use of metaphors to instruct, or inclusion of enough examples, or perhaps particular examples, in areas where students usually struggle.
There are reasonable smooth transitions between chapters, in terms of the authors' writing style.
It was readily apparent that the textbook is not only organized in a logical way, but it is straightforward to use chapters or sections in an alternative order.
I was impressed with the organization of the chapters, particularly in terms of how organs were organized according to whether their main role was structural, communicating, or metabolic.
I have long shied away from electronic resources, mainly due to the clunkiness of the interface. However, this textbook's interface is easy to use and its organization makes sense.
I randomly surveyed many sections of text and did not identify grammar issues.
I sampled many figures. I noticed that there are fewer pictures of people than in other texts. I did notice that when there were images of patients, the patients were much more likely to be women. I noticed that photos of healthy, active people, particularly in sports, tended to be men. In fact I saw this several times, and the images of active men tended to be marathon runners. I would like the authors to revisit this issue. This makes a difference for me, in terms of how satisfied I am with the text I am using.
I look forward to adapting my powerpoint presentation to include slides from this book. Is there a file of figures I could gather materials from? I also really enjoyed the bibliography and greatly appreciated that links could be clicked on. which was also true of the index. Please fix the issue of portraying women as patients and men as healty and enjoying sports.
I compared this text book to two others commercial text books I have used in class. The table of contents covers all the main topics and comparable read more
I compared this text book to two others commercial text books I have used in class. The table of contents covers all the main topics and comparable to other text books on the market. Looking through the individual chapters I found the text went into adequate depth in most areas. As I am teaching Anatomy I cannot only adequately comment on the book strength in Physiology. The illustrations were informative and helped clarify the content. The index and the list of key words at the end of every chapter is useful. The variety of interactive links in the on line version such as virtual slides, and video clips of medical diagnostic technologies, surgeries. The chapters, on the immune system, respiration, digestion, and the kidneys, however, focus more on physiological mechanisms than anatomy and terminology and include cellular and molecular mechanisms.Each chapters layout with objective, key terms and glossary and the critical thinking questions provide a clear picture of the important concepts. The images charts and diagrams were clear and well constructed.
Looking through several chapters I found the information to be accurate. I found the information presented in this book to be up-to-date, and consistent with the most widely held scientific opinions on the topics.
This book is written in a manner that it's content will remain relevant long into the future. The fact that it is open source textbook, allows it to be readily modified or updated by individual instructors. The textbook contains current information and up-dated material. As with any science textbook, periodic revisions will be necessary for many of the units. The textbook also has an assortment of web links that will need to be maintained.
The material is presented in an engaging manner and should hold the student’s attention. There is a nice, seamless transition between sections contributed by different authors. The text in this book is extremely clear, which is great for a first course in A&P. The use of videos that are placed at the end of sections provides additional context and clarification of concepts discussed within the text. Diagrams are clear and well labeled making them easy to look at and understand which will help students to understand concepts presented in the reading. There was a vocabulary list at the end of each chapter which did an excellent job of highlight technical jargon that may have been confusing for students.
The textbook is quite consistent from Chapter-to-Chapter. In general, the terminology and nomenclature is consistent throughout the book. The framework and terminology are consistent throughout the book.
Sections of the text could be used to supplement th course material which is useful. The sections are modular. Book organized into chapters with sub section that make it very easy to move around, or remove small sections if desired with out making the text difficult to read. Sub sections are nicely organized, each starting with objectives, then material finishing with an interactive link.
Overall the chapter order and organization is logical and structured well. The selection of chapters is appropriate to A&P. The structure of the chapters is well presented visually and the breakdown of content into sub sections makes the book easy to read, as well as creates a good framework for moving through the content.Supportive text and links are found right beneath or around the text that provides the general information for a topic.
The text has no interface or navigation issues. I have used other e-books and here I preferred the PDF to the on line version. I used the PDF to review the book. There were no issues.
Did not notice any grammatical errors
No cultural issues were noted.
I was surprised by how easy-to-use and thorough this text was. This textbook has many strengths: it is well organized, has a fresh lay-out that is easy to read and offers an excellent summary, section quizzes, references and resources at the end of each chapter. I found the scrolling to be cumbersome and having used some other excellent text books would like to see better images.
The content contained in "Anatomy and Physiology" is broad and would provide an A&P student with a complete picture of the human body’s structure and read more
The content contained in "Anatomy and Physiology" is broad and would provide an A&P student with a complete picture of the human body’s structure and function. Instructors will find this text appropriate for a two-semester A&P course. There are some areas of physiology that were much less comprehensive than expected, but overall this text does a fine job of addressing the foundational details of physiology that instructors would expect their students to master. There are a variety of excellent homeostatic imbalance areas of the chapters (both the expected ones and many unique ones), as well as many clinical application/everyday connection pieces. The text also showcases a variety of careers in the “Career Connections” segments. These accessory pieces give students pause to acknowledge that the details of A&P are essential for them to learn for success in many professional fields and for their own personal knowledge. Each chapter also contains review questions with an answer key area at the end of the text. The varieties of supplemental learning resources that interface with the book further enhance the text’s comprehensiveness (pronunciation guide, online homework tools, tutorials, adaptive learning tools, etc.) Interactive link questions accompany the abundant links and provide ideas for instructors to create assignments or activities associated with the links. The text occasionally refrains from expanding on physiological details where I would like to see more. For example, I was surprised to see very little explanation of meiosis in the reproductive system chapter. It is mentioned in the text but not explained except briefly within the figure title. Supporting images are not particularly clear in illustrating chromosome arrangement during the phases.
I did not encounter any inaccuracies in the content beyond those that have been shared through the errata list accessible on the publisher website.
The content is relevant and has lasting power due to its updatable format and interactive links to external websites that can also be updated easily (but will require regular monitoring of changing websites by the publisher to remain current). URLs are linked within the PDF for quick access. The images that were chosen should not date themselves easily. The text uses many eponyms throughout (i.e. Sertoli, Leydig, Langerhans, Henle) but often notes the alternative, more updated terms as well to reflect changing practices in naming.
By and large, the authors’ explanations are precise and particular. The writing styles of the various authors are clear, readable, and at an appropriate level. The text does an excellent job of guiding students in constructing strong anatomical vocabulary by explaining word origins and connecting to everyday language (the mnemonic device table to help learn muscle names is a nice example). For the most part, challenging topics were well-explained, though often the physiological details were not expanded upon as fully as I would like to see to enhance clarity. There are some areas of physiology where the explanations may be a bit difficult for a typical A&P student to follow without some additional visual support. For instance, the muscle contraction sequence could benefit from a flow chart/sequencing visual. This is the first significant physiological sequencing students may encounter if proceeding chapter-to-chapter in this text, and a visual “map” of the sequence would serve as a good model for how to think in sequences and cause/effect relationships moving forward.
The writing style varied noticeably across certain chapters, which is to be expected to some extent with a team of authors. While some readers may not notice this, it would help students to have a more unified writing style to guide them as they proceed through the text. Some inconsistencies appear across chapters with terminology or symbolism (partial pressure symbol PCO2 vs. pCO2); use of ion charge as superscripts on some occasions, subscripts on others; with terminology (interpulmonary pressure and intra-alveolar pressure). The non-critical thinking review questions at the end of each chapter are good but are all multiple choice in style. Some additional variety of questions would benefit students. The critical thinking questions vary considerably in style from chapter to chapter (all immune system critical thinking questions are at the “describe” level of cognition). There are occasional inconsistencies between terms in diagrams and terms in a figure title or within the text (“pyruvate” and “pyruvic acid” in Chapter 10, with no explanation of their differences.)
Its arrangement makes this text agile for use in its entirety in a two-semester A&P sequence course or more piecemeal in another type of course. Within each chapter, content is mostly “chunked” well to make it easy for students to stop at natural breaks and re-read before advancing. While I appreciate that bullet lists are not overused in this text, there are many places throughout where a break in the solid text-upon-text content would be helpful to students in organizing thoughts and seeing the big picture. Many students will have difficulty focusing on considerable text all at once, especially given the single column layout of text. For instance, the flow of the action potential sequence explanation felt quite heavy and would benefit from some compartmentalization of events to help students break the sequence into more manageable chunks.
I found the organization of this text to be excellent. It is similar to other common A&P texts on the market and is logically arranged from system to system. This structure would make it easier for an instructor to transition from another typical A&P text to this one without having to significantly modify the course layout. It is nice to see a “key terms” section at the end of each chapter. The text would benefit in its flow by expanding on its offering of visual support of complex physiology and placing these as close as possible to the text explanation it references (scrolling to find the image or advancing to another page to complete a table is commonly required). The layout of urinary physiology was a bit awkward to me. The three main physiological events are not showcased as well as I would like to see to help a student grasp the big physiological picture. The flow of female reproductive anatomy and physiology was also a bit challenging to follow. Students may lose some of the physiological continuity here as result. Of course, an instructor can skillfully adjust the flow of this content easily enough to meet his or her style with this text as a reference.
This resource was easy to navigate in PDF form with the ability to jump from page to page, though considerable scrolling is required. Text is searchable for key words from within Adobe Reader. Given the length of this PDF document, it would be ideal if the text page numbers and the PDF numbering of pages could be matched to improve navigability (currently, text page 1 is page 9 in Adobe Reader). Numbering the cover page of the book as page 1 would resolve this. There were no distortions of figures or tables that I noticed. There are areas of the text where line spacing changes from single to space-and-a-half for no apparent reason. This was a mild distraction.
The text has occasional, relatively minor grammar and usage errors but not so many that they interfere with the readability of the text.
The text is culturally sensitive and includes examples that are wide-ranging and not exclusive. Many drawings are “generic” so any reader can identify with the images. Varied skin tones are used in some colored drawings. Photos show different regions and peoples of the world. Chapter 28 chapter review critical thinking questions include diverse names (and most other chapter questions avoid names altogether and instead note “a patient” or “a person”).
Overall, I think this resource has an impressive start at becoming a text of choice for many A&P faculty. I think an area of greatest potential for improvement is in its use of visual support of content. I would like to see more continuity between the figures and the text. Sometimes it seems they are separate entities and don’t “talk to each other” well (different terminology used, for instance). I would welcome additional diagrams and/or flow charts that supplement the text’s explanation of the most challenging physiological processes (for example, additional renal physiology diagrams). I was pleased to see many images return to the more simplified, less cluttered style. There is a nice mix of colored and black and white drawings. There are also many good attention-getting images (hand gripping, saccadic eye movements, deadly nightshade, etc.) However, not all illustrations or images were clear and could use improvement in subsequent editions. For instance, some of the histology images did not showcase the identifying characteristics well at all (unable to see striations in cardiac muscle, barely in skeletal muscle). The illustration of ovary anatomy is quite “zoomed in” with little else in the image for reference. Many of the muscle diagrams were rather small, making it difficult to see details. The text's font size is quite small, and while PDF readers can enlarge, those opting to use a physical text may find this makes for difficult reading.
I am comparing this text with two Human Anatomy and Physiology textbooks I have used. This online text covers all relevant topics for a 200 level read more
I am comparing this text with two Human Anatomy and Physiology textbooks I have used. This online text covers all relevant topics for a 200 level Human A & P class. Overall, I found the text comprehensive and easy to read. The book is geared toward novice students to the subject matter, and does a great job conveying complex material to the reader. Difficult concepts or processes are simplified to make the subject matter easier to understand for the reader, but sometimes at the expense of thoroughness. The text covers each subject area appropriately. Images and diagrams are used appropriately to help explain the material, however, more pictures, figures, diagrams, tables, flow charts, and the likes could be used instead of lengthy descriptions, to address different learning styles of readers, and to make it a more interesting read (see example under Clarity section) . The preface reveals that the book is divided into units and subunits. The division into chapters by fundamental A & P texts seems more helpful in organizing the vast amount of information covered, and would greatly improve this online version.
The text is mostly accurate and seems unbiased. There is one figure on “Negative Feedback” in the beginning of the text that conveys the wrong and misleading message in that the output of sweat glands seems to further increase body temperature, instead of cooling the body to counteract the stimulus (Figure …). I found it strange that, mostly, figure or table numbers are left out in the text, which makes the wording of sentences sound awkward. For example “Table lists the difference between…”, or “As seen in Figure, cardiac muscle is striated…”. Most figures or tables do have numbers assigned to them, but those numbers are not reflected in the text. However, there are hyperlinks to all figures throughout the text, therefore, when clicking on the “Figure” in the text, the reader is taken to the figure referred to. This, I imagine, would make it hard for an instructor to refer to a specific figure, table or diagram during lecture. If units were divided into chapters, and not subunits, it might be less confusing to everyone. Once readers click on the “Figure” link, they have to scroll back up to the text to resume reading the chapter…. This can be very cumbersome to the reader. Also, it would be helpful to create hyperlinks between different chapters, especially between the chapters on acidosis/alkalosis with previous chapters on the respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems.
The book provides good examples of clinical applications to most topics in the text but also by providing links to other online resources. Sometimes, these links do not work. However, even if the authors keep updating the information once a URL is obsolete, it is a good tool for sharing new knowledge in the subject matter, for giving interesting clinical examples, and for sharing the latest news in medical research.
The book is aimed to provide a clear, easy to read text on the subject matter. A glossary at the end of each section aids in explaining terminology to the novice. Expected learning outcomes are listed in the beginning of each chapter, and practice questions, as well as critical thinking questions are listed at the end of each chapter. As mentioned above, sometimes, the simplified versions of complex pathways or processes are at the expense of thoroughness. However, it focuses well on conveying the knowledge relevant for new students of A & P. Images and diagrams are used appropriately to help explain the material, however, more pictures, figures, diagrams, tables, flow charts, and the likes could be used instead of lengthy descriptions, to address different learning styles of readers, and to make it a more interesting read. One example is the chapter on the action potential in the nervous system, endocrine regulation of the kidney, as well as regulation of fluid volume and composition in the renal system. The explanation of the countercurrent exchange system in the kidney is very simplified, however, a video is provided for further understanding. ‘Everyday connection’ sequences add to the further understanding and application of the material to real life, and are very interesting and relevant.
The book is consistent in terms of formatting. It shows sometimes that different authors worked on different sections of the book, which can be a problem especially when chapters discuss a theme that was already introduced or discussed in a previous section written by a different author. However, these differences are very subtle. Sometimes, there is a missing consistency between images or tables used, for example in the section that covers facial muscles. Hardly any muscles are labeled in the image but are mentioned in the following table. Most tables showing actions, origins, insertions, etc. of muscles have the same order, except for the table on muscles that move the hand, which has a different order and format.
The modularity is fine. Lots of scrolling is necessary if readers decide to not print the whole text.
The book seems to sometimes have big blocks of lengthy text, which could be broken up by providing more images, diagrams, flow charts etc. that are individually downloadable or printable. This would break up long sections and help readers understand the material better, and it would allow students to gear the text toward their individual learning styles. It would be easier if each theme would have a chapter, and if figures, tables, etc. were numbered according to their specific chapters, like they are in regular A & P textbooks. It makes it easier for teachers to refer to a specific figure, table, etc.
There are no significant interface issues. What I found most challenging in terms of keeping buoyant in reading this text is the lack of clear numbering and organization, as well as the interconnectivity between different chapters. Especially with an online text, there is an ability of creating links between chapters, to refer back to previous chapters in order to further the understanding of the reader, and to provide a comprehensive guide to the subject matter.
I found that there were few grammar issues in the text. Mostly, I found that it was strange not to have figures etc. labeled in the text, which made sentences sound awkward.
No issues in terms of insensitivities. More of the interesting examples of what makes us all different could have been used, for example the evolution of skin color, body hair etc., because it makes it more interesting and applicable.
This is a great resource for students of A & P. I think that the text is written well, but I would like to see more visuals, flow charts, diagrams, and other images that facilitate the understanding of the material to the reader, and that address different learning styles of students.
I thought that the text was very comprehensiveness and I also liked the organization of the text. They did a very good job blending the anatomy with read more
I thought that the text was very comprehensiveness and I also liked the organization of the text. They did a very good job blending the anatomy with the physiology of the various systems in the body. I feel that would make a very good text for an undergraduate anatomy and physiology class.
The text was very accurate with information presented.
Anatomy and physiology does not change much over the years. The content is up to date and should not become irrelevant.
The book is written clearly. I think that it would be easy for an undergraduate to read that has not been exposed to anatomical and physiological concepts yet.
The were no issues with consistency in the textbook that I could find.
The text makes it easy to set up a class based on the divisions of the book. One thing that I have found teaching is that if this topic can be sectioned into more manageable amounts for the students they have greater success.
I really liked the organization and the blending of anatomical and physiological subjects. It makes it easier to tie the physiology and anatomy together with each system.
There was no navigation issues noted in the text.
There were no grammatical errors noticed in the text.
There were no culturally insensitive topics noted in the text..
Textbook prices for anatomy and physiology texts can be outrageous these days. It's nice to see a quality text that can be used for a class at a much more reasonable cost with no drop off in content or information. There needs to be more alternatives like this in other subjects as well. I look forward to more open textbooks in the future.
The overview at the beginning of each chapter and direct objectives at the beginning of each section are very well established, but lie in the read more
The overview at the beginning of each chapter and direct objectives at the beginning of each section are very well established, but lie in the "Understanding" category of Bloom's Taxonomy. The "Chapter Reviews" at the end of each chapter are also helpful including brief summaries on individual sections and multiple choice review questions in addition to critical thinking questions to test for understanding and application of the material. It is very effective that the answers to "End of Chapter Questions" are listed at the end of the book to allow the students the opportunity to think through the questions and recognize the concepts that they have a firm understanding in, and which they do not yet fully grasp. Additionally, having the function of "Finding" a word in the text is a great interactive feature for students who are looking inquisitively into a particular detail or topic subject in which to study. Finally, the advantage of having the ability to include interactive page links throughout the text is extremely helpful for navigating through the online text, mimicking the ability to quickly flip through pages, while not becoming disoriented in the large volume of information.
Several characteristic details are spared which do not change the meaning of the information written, but unfortunately does not disclose some of the truths of the information. (example: Radiograph vs x-ray). Again, this may be a minute point to illuminate in a collaborative anatomy and physiology textbook. When entering into the specifics of the field in anatomy, the exhaustive details result in the separation of mastering the subject matter and superficial understanding from a student perspective.
More clinical aspects of the anatomy being described would be useful, in addition to the treatments and procedures for such clinical aspects. This would be an easily identifiable way to keep track of the progress of medicine and treatment policies. Most of the anatomy itself may change slightly but for the most part has been identified and is established in Latin/Greek root words. Perhaps at the end of the section some of the terminology that has been changed from eponymous names to anatomical names could be identified (ie: Fallopian tubes = Uterine tube). Additionally this would allow for students of a higher caliber to feed their curiosities on relevant topic matter while not inundating the less developed students.
The clarity of this text is undoubtedly apprehensive. Anatomy is filled with an array of jargon and discipline specific terminology. However, the majority of terms are defined as an easily accessible prose. Key terms are listed at the end of each chapter which help to allude to the important wording of the complex structures and ideas. The use of language and flow of information is highly comprehensive allowing for intrigue in reading the subject matter while still including and highlighting the scientific aspects of the material-without overbearing the reader in copious amounts of vernacular.
The framework for this text is most congruous with the large volume of information exhibited. Terminology is clearly defined at the end of each chapter. However, some of the terminology is out of date, for instance including only Eponymous naming of structures rather than the more recently acceptable terminology of anatomical classification and distinction, as stated previously.
The structure of this text is very clearly organized. Multiple sections per chapter allow for the flow of information to be categorized properly and assignment of particular and distinct subject areas for the students, without them having to read 100 pages per lecture.
For an anatomical and physiological standpoint, great organization: levels of organization; support and movement; regulation, integration and control; fluid and transport; energy, maintenance, and environmental exchange; human development and the continuity of life. This structure of material building from the basics of physiology through the combination of detail to reach higher levels of organization in the body is very well done. Additionally it is highly correspondent to many other combined anatomy/physiology textbooks in terms of order of material which allows for ease of access to similar information.
Many of the images, while very effective in caricature and animated drawings, are mostly effective for basic understanding and conceptualization of these 3D concepts. Due to the high complexity of the subject matter presented, it may also be advantageous to include actual specimen figures and/or more realistic drawings of the anatomical features being depicted and portrayed. This would help bridge the gap of understanding to comprehension required for higher order thinking and development at the collegiate level. A large composition of the interactive links leading to interactive videos are inaccessible or no longer viewable, and result in an error. I tried accessing the links from different networks and computer sources and concluded with the same dysfunction. I unfortunately was unable to find additional technological support or alternative avenues in which to utilize this function, which was disappointing.
I am not a trained grammarian and ultimately did not become aware of any major instances of grammatical error that led to informational misunderstanding.
This text has no bias nor deviation of ethical implications towards cultural influences that may be perceived as malicious or insensitive. Scientifically, there could be increased reference to the different anatomical and/or physiological characteristics of major ethnic groups. This then perhaps couldbe indicated by boxes on the side of the page indicating cultural "Did you know" information breaks.
This review is based primarily on the evaluation of an anatomical basic. Strictly as a physiology and anatomy textbook, this source provides a plethora of information and with a wide degree of detail. Specifically however, for courses that are separated into physiology and anatomy, this textbook would not be sufficient for either subject independently. This could definitely be used as an introductory level, or combined anatomy/physiology course for lower level courses. A specific physiology and anatomy book would be required for higher lever courses focusing on the specifics of the material for a deeper and more analytic and evaluative understanding for the student. That being said, this text would be a great starting point or use of reference for students, particular for those who may have previously never studied physiology or anatomy, to expose themselves to the building blocks and intimate cohesion of the subjects of anatomy and physiology.
The text strikes a balance regarding comprehensiveness, providing more details than fundamental A&P texts. The resulting text is lengthy at 1300 read more
The text strikes a balance regarding comprehensiveness, providing more details than fundamental A&P texts. The resulting text is lengthy at 1300 pages; however, fine technical points, as discussed in the most comprehensive texts, are avoided. All primary topics typical for a two-semester undergraduate A&P course are addressed.
The text is accurate. Inaccuracies can be identified through an online form, and know errata are posted on the text’s website. One misleading figure I noted involves negative feedback. The negative feedback figure has a colored arrow connecting the effector to the stimulus. In particular, Figure 1.10b has an arrow from “Sweat glands throughout the body” leading to “Body temperature exceeds 37°C”. This would indicate, incorrectly, that the sweat glands lead to a higher body temperature. Figure 17.6 shows an arrow between homeostasis and imbalance, which may lead students to incorrectly believe that homeostasis leads to an imbalance.
The book devotes much time to the clinical aspects of A&P providing practical relevance. I attempted to access the links in the text on my phone’s QR reader. Many of the links did not work. This will frustrate the students and they are likely to disregard the links. The irony of this feature is that while it is cutting-edge, it becomes dated easily because URL’s of external websites change constantly.
The authors consciously designed the book to facilitate student understanding. Examples include, the figure explaining serous membranes depicting a fist within an underinflated balloon, the inclusion of mnemonic devices in tables, and using words to help explain synthesis reactions (i.e. note + book = notebook). The book was generally clear; however, it could provide more details on subject matter that many students find challenging. For instance, illustrative details of action potential or muscle contraction would improve the clarity of these topics. One confusing figure, in particular, is the “Pathways in Calcium Homeostasis” figure on page 236. I was unsure where to begin. A few modifications would greatly improve this figure.
The format of the book is consistent. A careful reader may pick up on the different writing styles of the multiple authors, but it is not very noticeable.
Currently, the textbook must be downloaded as one large PDF file. Making the content available a chapter at a time would increase the modularity of the textbook. The textbook is not completely modular, but that is to be expected. The subject matter builds on itself from chapter to chapter. As students are introduced to concepts or terminology (homeostasis in chapter one, or sodium ions in chapter two), this knowledge can be built upon in subsequent chapters.
Figures and accompanying text explanations are generally found on the same page. As a result, the book contains more empty/blank space than typical, which is refreshing. Tables are printed on multiple pages, rather than being on one page (table 6.2, 6.5, 9.1, and 13.1). This occurs even when there is ample space to combine the table into one page A detailed table of contents would be useful. Particularly, it would be helpful to include the “Career Connections”.
I recommend enlarging some of the figures to make them more readable. Particular attention should be paid to figures of the eyes and muscle diagrams. I had difficulty navigating such a large .pdf file. Allowing students to download the book one chapter at a time would help with this issue.
I did not notice any grammatical errors.
As far as A&P goes, it is culturally relevant and culturally sensitive.
The affordability of the textbook will be appreciated by students making the subject of A&P more accessible.
The book is very comprehensive and covers the wide range in Anatomy and Physiology topics. It covers the basics from cell and tissue level to organs read more
The book is very comprehensive and covers the wide range in Anatomy and Physiology topics. It covers the basics from cell and tissue level to organs and organ systems very well. The diagrams and pictures are clear and appropriately labeled. This could be a great book for an online or hybrid class.
The book is accurate and unbiased. The text is error free and in-depth. The art-connection diagrams and pictures are appropriate, accurate and labeled legibly and correctly.
This book is accurate in content and updated. The content is relevant and adequate.
I really liked the consistency in the language of the book although it is written by multiple authors. The technical terminology is appropriate and adequate enough for students to understand and learn from. The diagrams and pictures are clear and appropriately labeled and titled.
The book is consistent in language, terminology and framework that makes it easy to follow.
The book is well edited and classified for the content.
The book has the same structure as most Anatomy and Physiology books. It is logical and clearly presented content that is easy to follow.
The book was tough to navigate in the online version since it did not allow jumping on a certain page. The pdf was easy to scroll. The images, charts and figured are constant and appropriately laid out.
The text in this book does not seem to have any grammatical errors.
The book is not culturally insensitive.
It would be great if issues of transgender anatomy, intersex and sexual spectrum were explained from an anatomical and hormonal perspective as a chapter addendum to the reproductive system chapter. This is an excellent book overall!
Overall, this text is comprehensive when compared to other textbooks used in an biology : anatomy and physiology course. The first few chapters are read more
Overall, this text is comprehensive when compared to other textbooks used in an biology : anatomy and physiology course. The first few chapters are extensive reviews of what I would consider fundamental knowledge my students should have picked up in general biology prerequisite courses. However, many textbooks will cover similar chapters in the beginning. The chapters I would start my course focus on would begin at chapter 4 (tissues). Because of the paper format (one column instead of 2 in traditional textbooks) of the text relating figures to written material is difficult at times when the figure mentioned in found a page or two later. The organization seems similar to the process I use when teaching the 11 systems of the body. The glossary is nicely found at the end of the chapters instead of scrolling all the way to the end of the text.
Overall, the information presented is accurate and seems unbiased.
There are new interesting comments along the way that even I have not read before. The interlinks are ok but I think there could be more up to date animations. The written material is straight forward making it easier to find material. However, the format may not make this easy.
The overall written material is clear. However, there are many visual figures that should be added for students to grasp a clear understanding of the material. For example, more histology images should be added when discussing tissues! Drawings are great but students really struggle with the "real picture" images. This is something this textbook seriously lacks in the epithelial section. The interactive links to quizzes is GREAT but we would need to require students to do them some how.
Overall consistent throughout the text. However the format is difficult to connect the written material to the figures due to the scrolling needed!
The modular piece of this is done just fine. However, student are drawn to visuals. I would like to see more images linking the material to current issues to the topics. Many of the modules lack a visual.
The material is organized. However, it lacks more visuals and is difficult to navigate due the the constant scrolling as mentioned above.
There is to much scrolling needed due to the format (one column paper style instead of 2 column textbook style). The figures are often mentioned on separate pages where you have to scroll to the next to see them. Some readers may have a hard time reading this text seriously due to the paper like presentation. However, this style may also engage student who otherwise are turned off from the more formal science textbook presentation, I would like to see more visual images embedded in this text. The interactive links are nice. Some may need a more updated look. As I read more into the later chapters this does get better.
Overall, there are some but few issues here.
My only real issue is scrolling and more engaging images.
The book is very comprehensive. The table of contents breaks down each chapter by section, so that you can easily see at the beginning of the book read more
The book is very comprehensive. The table of contents breaks down each chapter by section, so that you can easily see at the beginning of the book the detailed topics covered throughout, as well as listing page numbers. The glossary is done very efficiently, by listing several pages of key terms at the end of each chapter. The topics covered by this text are in the same order as other major Anatomy and Physiology textbooks on the market, making the transition to a new text easier for the instructor in my opinion. The topics are covered in a comprehensive manner, and are equal to any other major Anatomy and Physiology text on the market today.
Although I have not read all 1100 pages as of yet, it appears that this text is very accurate. I do not see any major errors in figures, the text itself or review questions. This text is unbiased in it's teaching on the scientific study of Anatomy and Physiology. The text however does lean toward a style of writing which convinces the student of the importance of understanding Anatomy and Physiology. I believe this is important for students in this subject, because it is often health students (at the beginning of their career) who will take this course. They may hear from others that it is a tough subject and important knowledge, but often they feel that it will not be important to them in their everyday job in the future. This text includes many highlighted boxes throughout called "Everyday Connection". This is important for students at this level to be able to start connecting the topics that they learn with a better personal understanding of their own physiology (i.e. body temperature control), and also learn about new research fields that may affect them (i.e. stem cell research).
This text was recently published and so the information is up-to-date. The arrangement of the book is also made in such a way that making updates would not be too difficult. Most of the new or more changeable information seems to be placed within interactive links and highlighted boxes throughout the text. This would make it easier for the OpenStax publishers and authors to update the book with the latest advances in research within physiology.
The clarity of writing is on par and at the same level as any other major Anatomy and Physiology textbook on the market today. The main topics and terms are highlighted and discussed in a comprehensive yet straightforward manner throughout the text. The additional or "nice-to-know" information is highlighted separate from the main text in boxes throughout the chapter. All of the writing throughout is accessible to students, and appropriate for the course level. Figures throughout the text are extremely clear, and I am ecstatic to see that finally a publisher has scaled back on the writing all over the figures. I believe that the figures in this text are far more clear and accessible to students than any other Anatomy text on the market today.
The consistency of this book is very good throughout. Each chapter is well organized and I like the structure. Each chapter begins with not only and introduction but also lists the chapter objectives, which are maybe more important for the instructor, but it is nice to have. Each chapter is broken down into smaller sections, helping to break down the content into more manageable pieces for the student. The terminology is consistent throughout the book as well and it is also summarized in a glossary of terms at the end of each chapter, which helps the student in studying the terms.
This Anatomy and Physiology text is broken down well and each chapter is organized according to measurable chapter objectives. The chapter objectives correspond well to each chapter section as well, making it easy to teach this text in a modular format according to how the instructor feels is best to present the information to their students. Each chapter section is not overwhelming in the amount of material, but at the same time covers each objective fully.
The topics covered by this text are in the same order as other major Anatomy and Physiology textbooks on the market, making the transition to a new text easier for the instructor in my opinion. These topics cover a logical order and are in the order that makes it easy to follow the course outline for a typical two semester Anatomy and Physiology course.
This textbook is available in several different formats including a print version (for a small fee) as well as a pdf, epub file or html file. The print version may be useful for many students that like to have a copy at their desk while they look through a PowerPoint or file on the computer at the same time. It is easy to navigate through due to it's comprehensive table of contents. Each section of the chapter is listed with a page number. The online files seem to have easy navigation, once you get used to the format. The .pdf file has tabs along the left side of the screen that are easy to navigate through to skip from one chapter section to the next. The interactive links are listed in the printed version, and accessible for all students. They are web addresses that are easy to get to, and show animations and videos related to the topic on that page of text. There are many more interactive links in this text than what I have seen in other similar Anatomy and Physiology texts. I believe this allows for the text itself to be more straightforward and much less "busy" with information. When the student feels they are ready they can easily open the link to see a video or animation to help them understand each topic better. This text is much less distracting and confusing in my opinion than other major anatomy textbooks on the market today. It seems to be written with the student in mind, and puts the major focus on the main topics and chapter objectives.
I have not noticed any grammatical errors.
This text has figures and examples which include all races, genders and ages throughout. For example the reproductive system chapter covers both the male and female anatomy and physiology comprehensively. It also includes extra information of disorders more specific to either male or female anatomy. At the end of the chapter their is a section which discusses puberty and lists many of the factors (besides genetics) that can play a role in affecting the development of the reproductive system. I believe this allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the way each individual's body can develop with slight differentiation.
Overall I am very impressed with this textbook. This book is formatted with the student in mind, understanding that they need to have less distractions in order to first learn the material. From an instructor's perspective as well the support staff was easy to work with and responded to my emails very quickly. The instructor only materials for this book are also a bonus. The PowerPoints are very basic, but this I feel allows you to input your own teaching style into the course while adding the figures from the text. This book would be wonderful for any two semester anatomy and physiology course, but also could be used one or a few chapters at a time to supplement another Biology course as well.
With regard to anatomy the book is quite comprehensive. There are some core physiological concepts--mostly molecular level phenomena--that are less read more
With regard to anatomy the book is quite comprehensive. There are some core physiological concepts--mostly molecular level phenomena--that are less well developed in the text (see open commentary)
I found no inaccuracies
I would recommend some brief coverage of genomics and RNAseq. These methods will be major diagnostic tools in the near future and are quite relevant to students reading this text.
Excellent, but perhaps with a few minor quibbles on terminology.
Good, but modularity is difficult to achieve with physiology. The subject matter is kind of interdependent. Still I don't think students would be totally lost if they started reading in the middle.
The progression is logical in terms of the physical organization of the human body. However, I think I would have addressed more general concepts, like second messenger systems, membrane transport, and action potentials in the initial sections rather than going straight from levels of organization to anatomy.
Good. Some minor redundancy noted.
This review is from the perspective of a comparative physiology instructor. I do not attempt here to offer a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the text with respect to it intended purpose (i.e. instruction of human anatomy and physiology. Rather, my main concern is how I might exploit this free resource as a source of information for a course that examines the physiology of vertebrates from a comparative and evolutionary perspective. Although this course attempts to expose students to the major anatomical features and functions of human bodies, it is also concerned with questions about how particular features arose and why they are often so complex. I did not expect this textbook to fulfill all of my needs. Discussions of malpighian tubules and non-tidal breathing systems would be out of place in a text entitled “Human Anatomy and Physiology.” However, I did hope to find selections or perhaps even large chunks of the book that could fill the needs currently met by the rather expensive textbooks I currently recommend (but do not require) that my students read. To be clear, I did not expect this text to be a perfect fit. I do not emphasize anatomy in my course, so I did not expect to use the trove of anatomical information and terminology in the book. Moreover, in comparative anatomy we look to non-human systems to understand evolutionary adaptations and limits on physiological systems. Also, I should admit that I did not read all 1300+ pages of this book. I skimmed through the first few chapters, read a few chapters closely, and searched the text for information on a few key topics. The following account provides some general impressions of the textbook along with my thoughts on how well suited it is as a text coopted to a comparative physiology class. I’ve got to say that the introductory chapter did not blow me away. The first actual sentence in the text is, “Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life.” I doubt any of us instructors walk into the classroom, and say something like “OK, we’re all here because of course requirements so let’s get this over with.” That’s an exaggeration of what this first sentence implies, but all the same at the beginning of a course begins, I try to generates some genuine enthusiasm by showing students fascinating images, discussing unanswered questions, and telling real-life discovery stories. Perhaps it is beyond the purview of a textbook to do so, but it would be nice to pique the students’ curiosity in those first few paragraphs and images. The writing style is informal, but not what I would call conversational. There are a rare few textbooks that employ a conversational style of writing that really helps (in my opinion) keep one engaged. This text is not one of them, but the writing is clear and efficient for the most part. The emphasis is clearly on the anatomical end of things, which might make for some confusion early on, if one’s classroom schedule closely follows the presentation of information in the book. Although the book begins with introductory text about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of physiology, it then dives into major aspects of the anatomy before the functional groundwork for the structures is established. For example, muscle function and contraction mechanisms come before an introduction to action potentials, which of course serve as the trigger for muscle contraction. Perhaps more striking is that second messenger systems are not explained at all independent of other concepts. The text covers their relevance to the nervous system and hormonal systems as a sort of side-tracked way (…by the way, here’s how that signal gets transduced inside the cell…) Perhaps this is a strength, as it keeps the concept of second messengers from becoming too abstract, but I think it leaves students wondering why these complex systems arose (e.g. for signal amplification). Having read through every mention of “second messenger” in the text, it is clear that this book will not serve as primary reading source for this important aspect of physiology. Several of these core physiological concepts also get only a very brief mention, such as membrane physiology (i.e. electro-chemical gradients), and receptors and agonists. These brief treatments would seem to be a good means of introducing the concepts, but for my course at least, I will need to find other sources (perhaps physiologyweb.com) as a reference for the more advanced concepts like the Nerst Equation and nicotinic receptor binding sites. Among the chapters I read closely, I noted a few instances where some tighter correspondence between the figures and the text could be beneficial. For example, the vasa recta is not labeled on figures but is mentioned several times in the text. The same is true for bile canaliculi. One other instance: granular cells are not labeled in figures or defined. They are, I think, the same as juxtaglomerular cells, which are illustrated and defined, but the terminology is not clear. I also noticed that the text contains a few redundancies (e.g. Page 488 makes redundant statements about pharmaceudicals and the blood brain barrier.). I would chalk this up along with a few occasional changes in terminology use to having so many contributing authors, and I imagine these issues will get ironed out in short order as the text evolves. Having looked back on my writing thus far, it would seem I have written a somewhat negative review. However, I should state that my general impression of the text is quite positive. I was particularly struck by the quality and clarity of the art work. The figures strike a nice balance of simplicity and detail, and I will definitely be using them for lectures and study guides. The art is on par with if not better than that of the commercially produced textbooks I’m familiar with and there appears to be no shortages of figures. In fact, a full page of text with no figures appears to be a rarity. The text is brisk and understandable, with plain English chapter titles and subheadings that will be of great benefit to students who are new to the material. I didn’t do any investigation into the recommended web-links and other special text boxes that permeate each chapter, but those I did read seemed like they would also help a lot of student with crucial information about career options and particular medical disordes. I will definitely be using this text as part of my comparative physiology class in the future. But, as expected, I will have to use other sources as well.
This text is extremely comprehensive and comparable to other leading Anatomy & Physiology texts in the current market in terms of its coverage of read more
This text is extremely comprehensive and comparable to other leading Anatomy & Physiology texts in the current market in terms of its coverage of levels of organization (i.e. chemical, cellular, tissue) and the anatomy & physiology of each system (i.e. musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, metabolism & nutrition, urinary, fluid,electrolyte & acid-base balance, reproductive, fetal development, & genetics). Each chapter provides objectives, key terms in bold, glossary with definitions, review of key points, review questions, and critical thinking questions. Images, figures, and tables are well-constructed, clear, and effective in illustrating important concepts. I am especially impressed with the variety of interactive links in the online version such as virtual slides, micrographs, and video clips of medical diagnostic technologies, surgeries, etc. Where relevant, many chapters include other pedagogical features such as homeostatic imbalances, specific disorders/diseases, aging effects, career connections, and everyday connections (i.e. second hand smoke). In addition, there is a comprehensive table of contents and index.
I found the content to be accurate, error-free, and unbiased. I did find one small omission in the PDF version. In Chapter 24 - Metabolism & Nutrition, the glycolysis equation is missing on page 1104.
The content is up-to-date and should remain relevant indefinitely, since anatomy and physiology does not really change. New diseases, new information about physiological processes and current diseases, and clinical applications (i.e. clinical diagnosis & treatment; medical technology; careers in medicine/allied health; etc.) can easily be incorporated, especially using the interactive links.
I found the text to be extremely clear and easy to navigate. Key terms are bolded and each chapter has a glossary of terms with definitions.
I found the text to be extremely consistent in terms of terminology and framework.
The text can be used in its entirety, or just as easily, an instructor can assign specific sections/chapters to meet the needs of a particular course.
The topics in the text are presented in a logical, clear fashion starting with levels of organization (i.e. chemical, cellular, tissue) and then proceeding to each system (i.e. musculoskeletal, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, digestive, metabolism & nutrition, urinary, fluid,electrolyte & acid-base balance, reproductive, fetal development, & genetics).
I found the text to be extremely clear and easy to navigate. Images, figures, tables, and interactive links (online version) are well-constructed, clear, and effective in illustrating important concepts. The only reason I rated this as a 4 is that the PDF version has no page numbers. This is problematic from a navigation standpoint for users who desire a print copy, especially since the table of contents and index both have page numbers.
While I did not read the entire text word-for-word (over 1300 pages!), in a careful perusal of each page, I found no spelling or grammatical errors.
I found the text to be culturally relevant and inclusive in general, and specifically in the examples of clinical conditions/diseases which affect some races/ethnicities more so than others.
I am extremely impressed with this text and commend the authors (i.e. 10 senior; 103 contributing) and editorial team in providing such a comprehensive text to students at no cost. As noted in comment #1, it is comparable to other leading Anatomy & Physiology texts in the current market which cost over $200. As well as the free online and PDF versions, a color print copy is available for a relatively nominal fee of $53.23. In addition, PowerPoint slides of all illustrations are provided to instructors who adopt the text.
Please keep in mind that I am only reviewing the physiology portion of this book and hence my comments only reflect that content. Extremely read more
Please keep in mind that I am only reviewing the physiology portion of this book and hence my comments only reflect that content. Extremely comprehensive! The only reason I did not give this book the highest rating on comprehensiveness is that I prefer to have a separate chapter for cell to cell communication. It was difficult for me to locate information on second messenger systems, for example, as it was embedded within chapters on various organ systems. I prefer to teach the ways in which cells communicate (i.e. target cell responses) before I dwell into organ systems. The list of terms in the glossary was also very comprehensive. There were times I was searching for a term and assumed that it would not be in the glossary, but it was! There is even a chapter on neurological exams!
Since I teach Human Physiology and not Anatomy, I cannot reflect on the accuracy of the anatomy portion of this book. I found the physiology content to be very accurate, I carefully reviewed each chapter relevant to physiology in this book and do not recall finding any errors in the physiology content.
To my knowledge, the physiology content of the openstax book is current. I can say with 100% certainty that the openstax book has more clinical application than most physiology books I have ever reviewed. Like most disciplines research leads to new discoveries. It should not be difficult to add recent discoveries into this book. How these updates are completed is dependent on what the update is, physiological or clinical. For example, if there are updates in cardiac physiology, specifically, the pacemaker and cardiac action potentials, this information would need to be added to the text. On the other hand, if the update is of clinical significance, a video link would be sufficient and completed with very little effort.
The text is clearly written and very concise. For certain topics, I would have preferred more elaboration over conciseness. I used this book in my Fall 2014 Human Physiology course. I often had students tell me that they found the reading to be difficult to follow. These students typically followed up this comment with "but I'm not that good of a reader, either." Clearly, this is anecdotal. I do not view such comments from students as necessarily bad, but rather a reflection on reading skills. Rarely, did I have a junior, senior, or non-traditional student comment on clarity of this book.
Terms were used consistently within text, but there is room for improvement when it comes to the figures. The text would refer to a bolded term and then in parenthesis provide a synonym for that name. On several occasions, one figure would use the synonym and another image would use the bolded term in labeling structures.
Absolutely. I had no concerns with modularity in this book.
For an Anatomy and Physiology book, the order of content makes sense. However, from just a physiological perspective, I would prefer to teach skeletal muscle physiology after the chapters on the nervous system. For example, it is difficult for students to understand the role of the motor neuron in skeletal muscle physiology when they have yet to learn about a motor neuron and action potentials. When I used this book in my Human Physiology course, I re-ordered the chapters to reflect this with very little difficulty.
I saw no issues with interface with this book.
Grammar was sufficient, except the usage of contractions. This may be the first book I have seen that makes use of contractions. I prefer not to have contractions in writing, especially formal writing like this book.
This book does a great job at including images and line drawings of people from a variety of races. This may be the first physiology book that I have reviewed that takes these sensitive issues into account! Great job!
From a physiological perspective, I could only ask that this book include an overview chapter on how cells communicate (i.e. paracrine signaling, neurotransmitters, hormones, second messengers, etc). Overall, this book is extremely comprehensive, informative, and well-written. One last comment on figures. I do not believe we were asked about images/figures. There was at least one or two occasions per chapter where I wished there was a figure to accompany the text. I understand that the figures used are open source and in a science discipline these are hard to come by, but perhaps for future updates, additional figures could be added for those difficult concepts that are currently lacking a figure.
Of course, this textbook should properly be compared to commercial Human Anatomy & Physiology textbooks. I am unable to make that comparison, as read more
Of course, this textbook should properly be compared to commercial Human Anatomy & Physiology textbooks. I am unable to make that comparison, as I have been teaching Human Physiology using commercial Human Physiology textbooks, so I will have to compare it to Human Physiology textbooks instead. Much of the text (especially the first half, approximately) emphasizes anatomy (understandably) and terminology (including physiological terminology); there are also sections on development and clinical symptoms and tests. All of this comes at the cost of explaining normal physiological mechanisms in more depth. Terms are often bolded, even terms that may be unnecessary, which will tend to encourage students to spend a large chunk of their study time memorizing these terms. It might help to delete unnecessary terminology and add more detailed text descriptions of physiological events. The sections on development could probably be deleted also, as development is a separable topic that really requires an entire course of its own to understand adequately. The later chapters, on the immune system, respiration, digestion, and the kidneys, however, focus more on physiological mechanisms than anatomy and terminology and include cellular and molecular mechanisms relatively well, in addition to anatomy. There are also some important omissions. The section on heart electrical signaling does not explain how pacemaker cells generate a pacemaker potential (primarily because it doesn’t mention funny channels). The explanations of resting potentials and action potentials do not go into enough depth for naive students to understand why each type of ion moves across the membrane in the direction it does.
The vast majority of the text is accurate. Nonetheless, there are more inaccurate statements in roughly the first half of the textbook (including general molecular and cellular mechanisms in the body and the nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems) than I have seen in the commercial Human Physiology textbooks I have used or reviewed. The chapters on the immune system, respiration, digestion, and the kidneys, however, have few or no inaccuracies.
The clinical examples provide relevance and are often up-to-date.
The text is usually clear, though there are some grammatical errors, spelling errors, awkward phrases, or repeated phrases in the early chapters. The use of terminology, though, is sometimes excessive.
The book reads like the chapters were written by different authors, particularly the early chapters vs. the later chapters. Sometimes, different terms are used for the same process (e.g., both "reabsorption" and "absorption" are used for the same process in the nephrons). Some chapters are more modular than others.
The chapters are mostly short and relatively modular. In some cases, this means there is redundancy between chapters, but such redundancy goes along with making chapters more modular, which may allow instructors more flexibility in using this textbook.
The order of the chapters is mostly logical and conventional. Sometimes it is better than the typical Human Physiology textbook, for example, by having the immune system directly follow the cardiovascular system. Occasionally, the order is unconventional and perhaps problematic. In particular, the discussion of muscles before the nervous system means that muscle electrical responses need to be explained before resting potentials and action potentials have been thoroughly explained in the context of the nervous system; the book effectively begins the nervous system description within the muscle chapter, but this discussion of electrical signaling is very brief and would not be sufficient for an average student to come to understand these challenging processes adequately. The nervous system section describes resting potentials, but without explaining electrochemical gradients, equilibrium potentials, or the Nernst equation, which will make it difficult for students to understand why the ions move in the direction they do during an action potential. Similarly, discussing skeletal muscle fiber types without having yet explained glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation will probably be confusing to students. The discussion of hemoglobin in the cardiovascular chapter doesn’t mention the modulation of hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen by binding of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and H+ ions, or the effect of temperature, which are all important for oxygen delivery to the tissues that need it. These issues are addressed much later, in the chapter on respiration, but they should be addressed when hemoglobin is first discussed in the cardiovascular chapter. ATP and cellular respiration is discussed in detail nearly at the end of the textbook, after many chapters have discussed use of ATP and glucose, aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration, and use of by-products of glycolysis, which seems backwards. Finally, the discussion of how much body water is in which compartments and an introduction to osmosis, hydrostatic pressure, key ions, etc. near the end of the textbook is also a bizarre placement. Of course, one could rearrange the chapter order, but this might create additional, unforeseen problems.
Some illustrations took awhile to load, but other than that, I didn't notice any interface issues.
There were a few grammatical errors, which is more than would be found in a commercial human physiology textbook.
I did not notice anything that was culturally insensitive.
The illustrations include many engaging and relevant photos. It would help if there were more diagrams that illustrate the chains (often loops) of physiological events (especially in the earlier chapters), so that the reader gets a better sense of the progressions of cause and effect and how amounts of substances or rates of processes are regulated. Such diagrams are numerous in commercial human physiology textbooks. “Critical thinking” questions at end of each chapter are sometimes quite imaginative but other times ask students to describe a structure or process they have just read about, which is more likely to promote memorization than critical thinking.
Table of Contents
Unit 1: Levels of Organization
Unit 2: Support and Movement
Unit 3: Regulation, Integration, and Control
Unit 4: Fluids and Transport
Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
About the Book
Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the yearlong Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught at most two- and four-year colleges and universities to students majoring in nursing and allied health. A&P is 29 chapters of pedagogically effective learning content, organized by body system, and written at an audience-appropriate level. The lucid text, strategically constructed art, inspiring career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course.
Color is used for pedagogical effect in A&P. Most art will consist of elegant black line, with the strongest line illustrating the most important structure(s) and shading used to show dimension and shape. Color (used only when needed) highlights and clarifies the primary anatomical or functional point of the illustration. Student focus is drawn to the most important learning point in each illustration, without distraction from excessive gradients, shadows, and loud highlights. The online book provides students with links to surgical videos, histology, interactive diagrams, and cadaver imagery at critical junctures. The text will publish in early June 2013.
OpenStax College has compiled many resources for faculty and students, from faculty-only content to interactive homework and study guides.
About the Contributors
J. Gordon Betts, Tyler Junior College
Peter DeSaix, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Eddie Johnson, Central Oregon Community College
Jody E. Johnson, Arapahoe Community College
Oksana Korol, Aims Community College
Dean H. Kruse, Portland Community College
Brandon Poe, Springfield Technical Community College
James A. Wise, Hampton University
Mark Womble, Youngstown State University
Kelly A. Young, California State University, Long Beach